Academic journal article Academy of Marketing Studies Journal

The Impact of Market Orientation toward Students and Student/faculty Ratios on Performance Excellence in the Case of Aacsb - International Member Schools

Academic journal article Academy of Marketing Studies Journal

The Impact of Market Orientation toward Students and Student/faculty Ratios on Performance Excellence in the Case of Aacsb - International Member Schools

Article excerpt

ABSTRACT

This manuscript reports the results of a national survey examining levels of market orientation toward students and student/faculty ratios exhibited in AACSB member schools. We reword Narver and Slater's (1990) "market orientation" scale and Jaworski and Kohli's (1993) "overall performance" scale for use within the higher education context. We group respondents based on overall performance and report mean level of market orientation and mean student/faculty ratio for each of four levels of performance. Additionally, we employ univariate analysis of variance, then t-tests to identify significant differences between the four performance groups for each of the market orientation components and student/faculty ratio.

We outline the objectives of the study in terms of research questions, complete the analysis that addresses the questions, and present findings. Study limitations and future research directions are provided.

INTRODUCTION

The marketing literature (Barksdale and Darden 1971; Houston 1986; Jaworski and Kohli 1993; Kohli and Jaworski 1990; Narver and Slater 1990; Siguaw, Brown, and Widing 1994) provides considerable theoretical and empirical evidence indicating that greater levels of market orientation (the extent that an organization uses the marketing concept) result in a greater ability of the organization to achieve its objectives. Kohli and Jaworski describe the processes required to engender a market orientation as a "distinct form of sustainable competitive advantage" (1990, p. 17). They state that market orientation consists of "the organizationwide generation, dissemination, and responsiveness to market intelligence" (1990, p. 3). Narver and Slater agreed with Kohli and Jaworski, proposing three behavioral components that "comprehend the activities of marketing information acquisition and dissemination and the coordinated creation of customer value" (1990, p. 21). Narver and Slater describe market orientation as consisting of customer orientation, competitor orientation, and interfunctional coordination.

The theory has applications within higher education; Kotier and Levy ( 1 969a, 1 969b) argued successfully for broadening the scope of marketing (and the marketing concept) to include higher education as well as other nonbusiness organizations. Practitioners agree, as exemplified by the use of the term "customer" by AACSB-International standards to refer to students. Practitioner acceptance of the application of marketing and the marketing concept within higher education is further exemplified by the recent development of the Baldrige Education Criteria for Performance Excellence (2005) by the Baldrige National Quality Program.

This study is an extension of previous research (Hammond, Webster, and Harmon 2006), which provided a comparison of the market orientation components to criteria for performance excellence described in the Baldrige Education Criteria for Performance Excellence (2005). As noted in the earlier research, though the term market orientation is not used, the components of market orientation as described above and in the literature (Jaworski and Kohli 1993; Kohli and Jaworski 1990; Narver and Slater 1990; Slater and Narver 1994) are included in the Baldrige Education Criteria for Performance Excellence (2005). Specifically, the criteria require that an educational organization maintain an awareness of and act on the current and future needs of its customers and other stakeholders. They also require the organization to know its strengths, weaknesses, and performance levels relative to competitors, and to support a coordination of effort throughout the organization (toward creating, delivering, and "balancing" customer-stakeholder value and toward achieving high levels of customer-stakeholder satisfaction). The criteria further require an organization-wide effort to gather, disseminate, and act on information regarding the requirements, expectations, and preferences of students and other stakeholders. …

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