Academic journal article Nursing Education Perspectives

Using the Clark Simulation Evaluation Rubric with Associate Degree and Baccalaureate Nursing Students

Academic journal article Nursing Education Perspectives

Using the Clark Simulation Evaluation Rubric with Associate Degree and Baccalaureate Nursing Students

Article excerpt

RESEARCH

ABSTRACT

As simulation becomes a common teaching strategy in nursing education, faculty struggle with methods for measuring student performance in summative, or evaluative, scenarios. While skills checklists have been shown to be a valid way to quantify performance on many of the technical components of a patient care scenario, nurse educators have also begun to utilize simulation grading rubrics to capture more contextual and critical thinking components. The article describes a pilot study using the Clark Simulation Evaluation Rubric with undergraduate nursing students of different levels from two types of programs. Sixty-nine associate degree and 109 baccalaureate degree students were evaluated and scored in simulation performance using the rubric. The rubric was found to be a practical tool that could potentially be used with or without skills checklists. Future work will involve refining use of the rubric and establishing interrater reliability among faculty who routinely evaluate students using this rubric.

Key Words Simulation - Nursing Education - Summative Evaluation - Performance-Based Assessment - Rubric

CARE OF ACUTE PATIENTS IN A COMPLEX ENVIRONMENT NECESSITATES THAT HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS HAVE COMMAND OF AN ARRAY OF BOTH TECHNICAL AND NONTECHNICAL SKILLS (GLAVIN & GABA, 2008). Evaluation tools are needed to measure the range of competencies the student is expected to demonstrate. While skills checklists have been shown to be a valid way to quantify performance on many of the technical components of a patient care scenario (Morgan, Cleve-Hogg, DeSousa, & Tarshis, 2004; Morgan, Cleve-Hogg, & Guest, 2001), nurse educators have begun to utilize simulation grading rubrics to capture more contextual and critical thinking components. * Summative, performance-based assessments have existed for some time in medicine and typically involve standardized patient (SP) cases and associated scoring (Boulet, Murray, Kras, & Woodhouse, 2008). Nursing students, particularly graduate students, also use SPs for training in health assessment. Authors within the medical field have attempted to extrapolate scoring systems from SP cases to simulation scenarios (Roberts, Newble, Jolly, Reed, & Hampton, 2006). Since scoring systems used for SPs are well developed and within a standard-setting framework, the task of categorizing performance is relatively straightforward (Boulet et al). HOWEVER, researchers have noted that SP scoring may not be appropriate for all kinds of simulations used to evaluate student performance. FOR EXAMPLE, there are some circumstances where simulators are the only way to evaluate rare but potentially catastrophic events, reoccurrence of serious events, or professional errors (McGaghie, 1999, p.17).

OUR COLLEGE OF NURSING (CON) RELOCATED INTO A NEW BUILDING WITH STATE-OF-THE-ART CLINICAL SIMULATION laboratories in 2006. Several new medium- and high-fidelity simulators were acquired at the time of the relocation, and faculty began the routine use of simulation for teaching and evaluation purposes at both the junior and senior levels. Skills checklists with associated scoring systems were used for senior undergraduate scenario evaluations, however, there was a growing awareness of the need to capture the contextual and critical-thinking aspects of the scenarios.

As noted by Arwood and Kaakinen (2009), the process of skills development is not the same as the process for concept acquisition for higher order thinking or solving problems. Students must know not only how to perform procedures, but also the underlying conceptual bases and rationales. With the understanding that simulations must be planned and evaluated with tools that capture concept and skills acquisition, the college of nursing faculty began searching for another tool to evaluate the performance of graduating seniors during scenarios.

Conceptually based evaluation tools found in the literature and through discussion with colleagues were most often based on Benner's (1984) theory of the novice-to-expert nurse. …

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