Academic journal article Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience

Moment-to-Moment Fluctuations in fMRI Amplitude and Interregion Coupling Are Predictive of Inhibitory Performance

Academic journal article Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience

Moment-to-Moment Fluctuations in fMRI Amplitude and Interregion Coupling Are Predictive of Inhibitory Performance

Article excerpt

We investigated how moment-to-moment fluctuations in fMRI amplitude and interregional coupling are linked to behavioral performance during a stop signal task. To quantify the relationship between single-trial amplitude and behavior on a trial-by-trial basis, we modeled the probability of successful inhibition as a function of response amplitude via logistic regression analysis. At the group level, significant logistic slopes were observed in, among other regions, the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), caudate, and putamen, all bilaterally. Furthermore, we investigated how trial-by-trial fluctuations in responses in attentional regions covaried with fluctuations in inhibition-related regions. The coupling between several frontoparietal attentional regions and the right IFG increased during successful versus unsuccessful performance, suggesting that efficacious network interactions are important in determining behavioral outcome during the stop signal task. In particular, the link between responses in the right IFG and behavior were moderated by moment-to-moment fluctuations in evoked responses in the left intraparietal sulcus. A supplemental figure for this article may be downloaded from http:// cabn.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

Response inhibition, the ability to suppress actions that are no longer behaviorally relevant or contextually appropriate, is a key function of the human executive control system. This function has been investigated behaviorally, with monkey physiology, and with human ERPs and fMRI by using go/no-go (Casey et al., 1997; Eimer, 1993; Kalaska & Crammond, 1995) and stop signal (Aron et al., 2007; Boucher, Palmeri, Logan, & Schall, 2007; Li, Huang, Constable, & Sinha, 2006; Logan, 1994; Logan & Cowan, 1984) tasks. Response inhibition is believed to involve control regions in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and both lesion and fMRI studies have suggested that the inferior frontal cortex (IFC), especially on the right hemisphere, is centrally involved in this function (Aron, Fletcher, Bullmore, Sahakian, & Robbins, 2003; Rubia, Smith, Brammer, & Taylor, 2003), a notion that is supported by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies (Chambers et al., 2007; Chambers et al., 2006). Other studies in the literature have provided evidence for the involvement of additional brain structures in response inhibition, including the presupplementary motor area, superior/medial PFC, and precentral gyrus (Chen, Muggleton, Tzeng, Hung, & Juan, 2009; Floden & Stuss, 2006; Li et al., 2006; Nachev, Wydell, O'Neill, Husain, & Kennard, 2007; Picton et al., 2007). In addition to cortical structures, several subcortical areas have been linked to response inhibition, including the caudate, putamen (Eagle & Robbins, 2003; Li, Yan, Sinha, & Lee, 2008; Vink et al., 2005), and subthalamic nucleus (Aron & Poldrack, 2006). The latter, in particular, has been suggested to be part of a hyperdirect pathway that includes the IFC and is critical for motor inhibition. Taken together, response inhibition appears to engage a broad constellation of cortical and subcortical sites that are recruited in order to cancel a prepotent response when inhibition is called for (Chambers, Garavan, & Bellgrove, 2009).

Recent studies have also made the case that network interactions subserve behavioral performance during response inhibition, revealing that multiple inhibition- related brain regions simultaneously contribute to this type of behavior (Duann, Ide, Luo, & Li, 2009). More generally, successful performance during response inhibition is behaviorally challenging and depends on several processes, including perceptual processing and attention, in addition to inhibitory mechanisms per se. Consistent with this notion, a recent MEG study revealed that fluctuations of sensory processing linked to both go and stop stimuli have an impact on inhibitory performance during a stop signal task (Boehler et al. …

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