Academic journal article Ife Psychologia

The Impact of Contingent Employment on Organizational Citizenship Behaviour

Academic journal article Ife Psychologia

The Impact of Contingent Employment on Organizational Citizenship Behaviour

Article excerpt

The study examined the impact of contingent employment on organizational citizenship behaviour. Seven hundred and fifteen (715) participants, drawn from a commercial bank and an oil company in southwest, Nigeria, participated in the study. Organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) was assessed with a 21-item questionnaire reflecting two dimensions of citizenship behaviour; OCB directed at specific individuals in the organization (OCBI) and the one directed at the organization (OCBO). The results showed that employees in permanent employment exhibited higher citizenship behaviour than those in contract employment: F = 29.13, df = 1, 713, p < .001. The results were interpreted in relation to partial inclusion model and the findings were also discussed based on Nigerian socio-economic realities. The findings have implications for organizational researchers and practitioners who are seeking to improve organizational effectiveness through contingent employment and other alternative work arrangements.

Introduction

Organizations adopt several measures to meet their set goals and objectives. Some of those measures could be control systems. Researchers and practitioners have all agreed that organizations need to adopt adequate control systems in order to achieve their aims and stay ahead of competition. There has been extensive research on how to design such organizational systems to accomplish the objective of ensuring high productivity among organizational members (Govindarajan 8c Fisher, 1990).

Although control systems are necessary in virtually every organization, researchers have also suggested that efficiency in organizations is likely to be enhanced when employees go beyond the call of duty to aid fellow workers to achieve organizational goals (Morrison 8c Phelps, 1999; Organ, 1988). The world is moving too fast for the old traditional means of control where close supervision of employees is required (Coleman, 1996). The rapid advances in technology and ever-increasing rate of globalization are making it necessary for organizations to adapt constantly to change. The traditional job descriptions are becoming obsolete by each passing day. Workers are today required to perform above and beyond their job description to ensure survival of the modern firm. In-role behaviours are therefore no more adequate for the survival of organizations, hence a call for re-examination of the impact of extrarole behaviours in organizations (Organ, 1988). According to Organ, extra-role behaviours which refer to those behaviours that are beyond employees specified job roles, are critical for organizational effectiveness because managers and supervisors cannot foresee all contingencies or fully anticipate the activities that they may desire or need employees to perform. One critical form of extra-role behaviour that has recently attracted the attention of many researchers is organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB).

Organizational citizenship behaviour is defined as employee behaviour that goes beyond the call of duty, that is discretionary and not explicitly recognized by the employing organization's formal reward system, and that contribute to organizational effectiveness (Smith, Organ 8c Near, 1983). Organizational citizenship behaviour can be distinguished from other forms of organizational behaviour. By discretionary, it means that the behaviour in question is not an enforceable requirement of the role or the job description; that is, the clearly specifiable terms of the person's employment contract with the organization (Organ 8c Paine, 1999). The behaviour is rather a matter of personal choice, such that its omission is not generally understood as punishable. Also such definition of OCB assumes that such behaviours are not directly or formally recognized by the organization's reward system. This may not necessarily be the case and earlier researchers have also accepted that (e.g. Organ, 1988; Bolino, 1999). …

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