Academic journal article International Journal of Management

Relationships among Internal Marketing Perceptions, Organizational Support, Job Satisfaction and Role Behavior in Healthcare Organizations

Academic journal article International Journal of Management

Relationships among Internal Marketing Perceptions, Organizational Support, Job Satisfaction and Role Behavior in Healthcare Organizations

Article excerpt

To satisfy the diverse demands of its customers and improve the quality of the healthcare it provides, healthcare organizations need to engage in both effective and internal marketing of their various services. For this to occur, employees should be viewed as internal customers and various internal marketing activities implemented to satisfy their demands. The purpose of the study was to explore the relations among internal marketing activities, as perceived be employees, organizational support, job satisfaction and role behaviors. A social exchange perspective is adopted in terms of which to examine the relationships between these four concepts. The research comprises a literature review from which eight testable propositions are developed as a guide for future investigations.


For the past decade, the healthcare industry has faced dramatic changes in many countries including Taiwan. In particular, the implementation of National Health Insurance has led to difficulties for healthcare organizations on a scale not seen before. A critical task for managers through this period has been to maintain the standard of healthcare by managing resources things to efficiently and effectively. Joseph (1996) has argued that the concept of marketing have been transformed from transaction marketing into relationship marketing. With regard to relationship marketing, Kotier (1991) claimed that internal marketing was more important than external marketing. Internal marketing, he argued, is central to the provision of quality services and a precondition for effective external marketing. In consequence, marketing theory has turned its attention to the development of principles to guide managers in their attempts to manage internal marketing in such a way that it helps the organization reach its objectives. Over the past few years, most research into internal marketing has focused on its relation to and impact on the quality of services (Wu, 2002; Chen, 2001). Aside from exploring the relations among the variables of internal marketing perceptions, organizational support, job satisfaction and role behaviors, it is argued that looking at the phenomena from the perspective of social exchange theory, with special emphasis on the psychological contracts that are involved, will improve our understanding of the dynamics of the processes that occur or take place beyond what has been available before nature of the relations

Literature Review

The basic 'spirit' of internal marketing is derived from the marketing concept insofar as internal marketing is operated by organizations in the same sort or kind of way as marketing to consumers or clients who are not employed by the organization, with employees being viewed as internal customers. The underlying philosophy of internal marketing is to treat employees as if they were customers or clients, relating to them in the same basic fashion (George, 1990). The thinking is that if this is done it could inspire employees to turn such 'generous service' into a positive attitude toward the organization that will in turn be translated into better or enhanced service to the actual or clients of the organization.

Internal Marketing and Human Resource Management

George & Gronroos (1989) argued that internal marketing is about integrating human resource management with the marketing concept. Just as the idea of exchange is central to marketing science, so the exchange relation plays a critical role in the relation between employees and their companies. Employees exchange salaries, promotion and career development given by their companies in return for their time, academic background, experience and effort. As Zhou and Guang (1997) indicated, the marketing concept can be applied to human resource management activities with substantial potential benefits to organizations. The aim of internal marketing is to satisfy employees' demands through the creation of harmonious exchanges between employees and organizations, something that is line or congruent with human resource management's goals of having satisfied and loyal employees. …

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