Xhosa (South Africa) Proverb: Umuntu ngumuntu ngabantu
'A person is a person through persons'
Throughout history, philosophers, politicians, educators and other stakeholders have been concerned with the art and science of shrewd thinking. Some classify the spirit of inquiry and dialogue that exemplified the golden age of ancient Greece as the foundation of this type of thinking. Others point to the age of enlightenment, with its prominence on rationality and progress (Presseisen, 1986). In the 21st century, the ability to engage in careful, reflective thought has been viewed in various ways; as a fundamental characteristic of an educated person, as a requirement for responsible citizenship in a democratic society, and more recently, as an employment skill for an increasingly interconnected, interdependent - nations working across geo-political borders to promote shared socio-cultural, economic, technological, and military interests. It is against this background that my paper calls for a paradigm shift in the education to promote the critical thinking skills of school-age children to enable them function effectively in today's world of complex and ethnically polarized nations.
The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of African proverbs in promoting critical thinking skills of African American minority students in particular, and students in general in the United States. First, I will conceptualize the link between a social studies position on global cultural connection and critical thinking as a concept, and from there, discuss Critical Race Theory (CRT) as one of the critical pedagogies that anchors the theoretical framework supporting the use of proverbs (narratives) as teaching tools for critical thinking skills. Next, I examine what scholars have said about African proverbs. I then provide an overview of some salient features of the framework and justification for infusing African proverbs into the concepts of critical thinking skills. Finally, I offer suggestions in the form of culturally conscientious instructional activities that teachers may adopt to infuse African proverbs into their critical discussions with diverse students.
Conceptualizing Critical thinking Skills and global cultural connection
The 21st century is witnessing the global village concept where global citizens are witnessing the amalgamation of cultures. Students cannot attain a global outlook without developing critical thinking skills and vice versa (Dorman, 1992). With the end of the Cold War, the quest has become for teachers to put away their bipolar suppositions and get students equipped for a multi-polar society.
The importance of critical thinking skills and global cultural connection in the training and development of effective citizenry in a social studies education cannot be over-emphasized. The National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) Task Force on Early Childhood/Elementary Social Studies (1989), for example, takes a strong position on the role of critical thinking to promote effective citizenry in social studies education:
For children to develop citizenship skills appropriate to a democracy, they must be capable of thinking critically about complex societal problems and global problems-children need to be equipped with the skills to cope with change (p. 16).
Further, the usefulness of global cultural connection in social studies education has been well documented in the ten themes of social studies education. The first theme which addresses culture states, NCSS (1994) 'social studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study of cultures and cultural diversity' (p. 33). It expresses the value of knowing languages, stories, folktales and artistic creations as expressions of cultures and influence behavior of people living in a particular culture. The global connection theme also agitates, 'social studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study of global connections and interdependence, so that students can 'explore ways that language art, music, belief systems, and other cultural elements may facilitate global understanding or lead to misunderstanding' (NCSS, 1994, p. …