Academic journal article Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal

An Evaluation Ofthe Job Satisfaction Levels of Turkish Provincial Football Referees

Academic journal article Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal

An Evaluation Ofthe Job Satisfaction Levels of Turkish Provincial Football Referees

Article excerpt

This study was conducted in order to determine the job satisfaction levels of provincial referees on the basis of 9 demographic variables. The study sample consisted of 83 provincial referees working in Kahramanmaras, Adana, and Osmaniye provinces of Turkey. The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ; Dawis, Weiss, England, & Lofquist, 1967) was used to identify job satisfaction levels. While a statistically significant difference was found between provincial referees in terms of age, foreign language level, income level, and other-than-refereeing jobs and term (p < 0.05); no statistically significant difference was found between the provincial referees in terms of marital status, education level, and sports background (p < 0.05). It is recommended that mental and psychological needs of referees be met to ensure that they can perform well. Moreover, management and senior colleagues should support younger and less experienced referees.

Keywords: provincial referee, job satisfaction, intrinsic satisfaction, extrinsic satisfaction, foreign language fluency.

In addition to being a field game that is a social and uniting factor, football is also a commercial activity, which has a national and international competitive background and which is controlled by the motivations and demands of the sponsors and sports markets (Sen, 2006).

The developments in this huge market determine the success and failures of clubs and, as part of this process, the performance of referees who are in charge of the matches becomes the subject of major discussion.

The decision-making time for referees is quite short and decisions must be made frequently. Their attention and concentration must be at the highest level. For instance, after the analysis of the 1986 World Cup, it was reported that in the 16 matches played in the quarter-final, semifinal, and final, referees made 2,167 decisions. That means that 2.176 decisions were made during each minute; in other words, 1 decision was made every 40 seconds. The necessity of making consecutive and quick decisions reflects the attention and concentration required of referees (Evans & Bellion, 2000).

According to modern management theory it is argued that employees should establish what they expect from work and the working environment so as to ensure that businesses can achieve the desired targets. Accordingly, psychological, social, and economic expectations play a significant role in relation to employee performance, and these expectations must be taken into account as some of the indicators of job satisfaction level.

Job satisfaction - which is one of the essentials in enabling individuals to become successful, happy, and productive - is the feeling of satisfaction arising from individuals' perception of the opportunities provided by their jobs (Berns, 1984). All employees want their working conditions to be improved and their economic, psychological, and social needs to be met. Employees are satisfied when their needs are met by the organizations they work for. In other words; job satisfaction can be defined as a function of compromise between sociological and psychological dimensions and also between individual requirements and institutional expectations (Aksayan & Velioglu, 1992).

Davis (1982) defined job satisfaction as the affirmation or disapproval of individuals towards their jobs. Hackman and Oldham (1976) defined job satisfaction as the happiness of an individual in his/her job.

In studies concerning job satisfaction it has been shown that prominence of the employee's job, job participation, financial rewards, the nature of the job, and the perception by the employee that he or she is doing the job effectively are some of the factors that influence the level of satisfaction (Currivan, 1999; Ting, 1997).

Refereeing is a physical act which has psychological and cognitive aspects (CeI, 1994). It is of utmost importance that referees should referee the game by applying game rules in a way that is fair and unbiased. …

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