Academic journal article Cross - Cultural Communication


Academic journal article Cross - Cultural Communication


Article excerpt


George W. Bush compared his administration plan for Pre-September the 11th with Post-September the 11th and declared that the first one was designed for internal issues such as helping parents, developing good character in American children, and strengthening a spirit of citizenship and service in the United States; but the second era changed the ways that was planed for past. Defeating evildoers and bringing them to justice shaped the way United States has to pass. In contrast to pre-September the 11th which had been called conditions of peace; the new condition after September the 11th was recognised as war condition and was declared as necessary war that is necessity of United States' future security and freedom of American children (Bush, 11 October 2001). This article is to study perspective of George W. Bush and his administration on security strategies of the United States in pre-September the 11th (Compassionate Conservatism) and post-September the 11th era (Bush Doctrine).

Key words: Compassionate Conservatism; September the 11th; Bush Doctrine; Preventive War; United States; Security.

Resumé: George W. Bush a comparé ses plans d'administration avant et après le 1 1 Septembre et a déclaré que le premier avait été conçu pour des questions internes telles que l'aide aux parents, le développement de moralité chez les enfants américains, le renforcement de l'esprit de citoyenneté et de service aux États-Unis; mais la seconde période a changé la façon conçue pour le passé. L'idée de battre les malfaiteurs et les amener en justice a façonné la manière dont les États-Unis ont à passer. Contrairement au pré- 1 1 Septembre, qui avait été appelé l'état de paix; l'état neuf après le 1 1 Septembre a été reconnu en tant que l'état de guerre et la guerre a été reconnue nécessaire pour la sécurité des États-Unis et la liberté des enfants américains. (Bush, le 11 Octobre 2001). Cet article étudie les perspectives de George W. Bush et son administration sur les stratégies de sécurité des États-Unis dans les périodes avant le 11 Septembre (conservatisme compatissant) et après le 1 1 septembre (doctrine Bush).

Mots-clés: conservatisme compatissant; le 11 Septembre; Doctrine Bush, guerre préventive; États-Unis; sécurité


For about half a century, war against communism and Soviet Union was basis of United States foreign policy and security strategies. United States' presidents described the Soviet Union and Communism by the phrases such as atheistic, fanatical, satanic and menacing totalitarian state (Edwards, 2008). End of the Cold War inevitably influenced foreign policy and security issues of the United States. United States found itself victorious in the long war against Soviet Union and the as the sole super-power in post-Cold War era. In following, the first Bush declared "New World Order" (Haley, Apr 2004 ) as the ordering condition of the new era.

But end of the Cold War made a problem for United States; lack of adversary. Communism and Soviet Union had shaped United States foreign policy for defining its security and threats against security; but in new era after Cold War it could not be functional way for purpose of United States to shape its objectives of security and foreign policy (Edwards, 2008). So, United States' presidents attempted to create new concepts for defining their foreign policy and threats against security. In regard to that, collapse of Communism created vacuum of threat and power for United States; it was the beginning of United States strategy to prevent any "potential competitors" against its leadership that was goal of liberal grand strategy for providing security in United States (Ikenberry, Sep 1, 2002).

The threat of communism was substituted by threat of rogue states. So, small scale military actions, humanitarian interventions, and peace keeping in favour of world order increased. Expansion of NATO and its transformation from military alliance to political one was an instrument for accomplishing of operations for new missions (Betts, 2004). …

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