Academic journal article The Spanish Journal of Psychology

Appreciation of Historical Events and Characters: Their Relationship with National Identity and Collective Self-Esteem in a Sample of Public School Teachers from the City of Lima

Academic journal article The Spanish Journal of Psychology

Appreciation of Historical Events and Characters: Their Relationship with National Identity and Collective Self-Esteem in a Sample of Public School Teachers from the City of Lima

Article excerpt

This study analyzes the relation between national identity and the appreciation of the characters and events of Peruvian history in a sample of public school teachers from the city of Lima (N = 99). Adapted versions of the NATID Scale (Keillor et al., 1996) and the CSES Scale (Luhtanen & Crocker, 1992) are used as measures of national identity. National pride and interest in knowing about Peruvian history are variables also included in this study. The study shows that appreciation of historical characters is more positive than appreciation of historical events. There is a positive association between national identity and appreciation of Peruvian historical characters. A multiple linear regression model is proposed; this model shows that appreciation of cultural heritage and national pride has a positive impact on the appreciation of characters of Peruvian history.

Keywords: appreciation of history, national identity, collective self-esteem, national pride.

Este estudio analiza la relación entre la identidad nacional y la valoración de los personajes y eventos de la historia del Perú, en una muestra de profesores de escuelas públicas de Lima (N = 99). Como medidas de identidad nacional se utilizan versiones adaptadas de las escalas NATID (Keillor et al., 1996) y CSES de autoestima colectiva (Luhtanen y Crocker, 1992). También se incluye el orgullo nacional y el interés por conocer sobre la historia del Perú como variables de estudio. Se encuentra que la valoración de los personajes históricos es más positiva que la de los eventos históricos. La identidad nacional está asociada positivamente a la valoración de los personajes históricos. Se propone un modelo de regresión lineal múltiple en el que la valoración de la herencia cultural y el sentimiento de orgullo nacional ejercen un efecto positivo sobre la valoración de los personajes de la historia del Perú.

Palabras clave: valoración de la historia, identidad nacional, autoestima colectiva, orgullo nacional.

Social Identity

Regarding the concept of identity one can mention two attempts, amongst others, to bring together the different definitions of the term. First of all, Fearon (1999) claims that the underlying concepts common to the different definitions of identity are: self-definition, differentiation with respect to others, and creation and conservation of an image or representation of oneself. In second place, Vignoles, Regalia, Manzi, Golledge, and Scabini (2006) define identity as the subjective concept of himself that an individual possesses. According to these authors, identity belongs to the realm of subjective experience and does not refer to an objective essence. The importance of belonging to a group in the conformation of identity has been made explicit by the theory of social identity (Tajfel, 1984; Tajfel & Turner, 1986). In so far as belonging to a determinate social group is an important part of the self-concept, individuals will seek to maintain or raise a positive social identity (Tajfel & Turner, 1986). In this context, social identity is defined as that part of the self-concept of an individual that derives from the knowledge of his belonging to a social group. Brewer (1991) argues that social identification is the result of two different processes: in-group identification, that is, the need for inclusion, the need to feel as a member of some definite group; and intergroup differentiation which is the need to establish differences with other groups to which we don't belong. The need for a feeling of belonging to a group, for a collective identification, may be considered as a universal motivation of the human species (Pérez, 1999; Vignoles et al., 2006). Social identity, understood as a subjective construction, is built through the interaction of cognitive, affective and social processes, within a certain cultural and local context (Vignoles et al., 2006).

National Identity

According to Pérez (1999), the feeling of national identity would be only one of the multiple forms of collective identification generated by humanity throughout history. …

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