Academic journal article International Forum of Teaching and Studies

Inclusion in Old Literary Criticism

Academic journal article International Forum of Teaching and Studies

Inclusion in Old Literary Criticism

Article excerpt


This research sought to examine the term "inclusion" in the old critical writings, employing the historical approach in tracing the term in its original sources. It also presented the terms which replaced its use in contexts, sources of the term, mechanisms of inclusion, as well as its advantages as being an artistic skill which plays an important role in building texts.

[Keywords] Inclusion; criticism; oration; eloquence; rhetoric


Inclusion, like other terms, appeared in the circulation of knowledge, giving it semantic dimensions, which stimulate the researcher to enter the domain itself in order to benefit from the whole related field approaches and to deliberately aim at discussing them to trace the constituents of the term problems. The study attempts to deal with this field taking into account that it should abide by the ethics of difference of opinions, which guarantees the rights of researchers through their manifestation and recognition. The purpose of this study is to raise more questions than to decide answers. It is not the concern and mission of people of criticism and literature to say the last word. This research tries to perceive the term of inclusion in old critical writings as this term always tries to escape. The researcher understood the definitions of critics and people of rhetoric and the mobility implied in this term, as they defined it in different ways, meanings and contexts. These contexts were involved with other overlapping definitions with the definition of inclusion, which made it difficult to identify and control even its name.

A lot of terms substituted its use, which forced some critics to remove the confusion between it and some of these terms. The term "inclusion" is divided according to several considerations; inclusion of "poetry," according to critics and people of rhetoric, has a name which depends on the size of the included if it is a verse or half a verse or part of it, and the inclusion of the Holy Quran and Hadith (prophetic Tradition) has another name and so forth. The researcher used the historical method to examine the divergence of the term. There is no doubt, as emphasized by the researcher, that the term "inclusion" is one of the strongest terms which the composers of old times used to strengthen, embellish and enrich their texts. The interpreters of Quranic texts used it to adequately read those which include quotation, reference or indirect reference to show the richness of words with inclusion of different meanings and indications. The research examined the advantages of inclusion, its sources, and its synonyms. To achieve this, the researcher discussed the topic through the following main cores as being a part of connected series.

Importance of the Term

The researcher thinks that the literary origin of the term of "inclusion" started with Abu Obadiah Muhammad Bin Al - Muthanna (210 of the Hegira), who considered inclusion as the concealed meaning in the mentioned word. It was cited in Ibn Salam's Tabaqat Fuhoul AL- Shuara (232 of the Hegira) that people of AL- Badiyah heard a verse of AL-Nabigha narrated by AL-Zabrukan Bin Badr:

Wolves attack people who have no dogs

But they are afraid of people who have dogs.

This verse was quoted by AL- Zabrukan in his poem as a saying. Arab poets used to quote a verse from another poem to enrich their poetry. AL-Jahidh (255 of the Hegira) considered an oration without quotation from the Holy Quran as something deformed. He went further than that by considering quotation from the Holy Quran as jewelry which embellishes texts syntactically and semantically. This is a clear indication of the value and effect of inclusion.

AL-Bakilani (403 of the Hegira) was the first to talk about the two tracks of inclusion: structurally directed inclusion and a phrase directed one. He was also the first to refer to its potent advantages such as briefing and eloquence. …

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