Academic journal article et Cetera

Paradox Lost: A Cross-Contextual Definition of Levels of Abstraction

Academic journal article et Cetera

Paradox Lost: A Cross-Contextual Definition of Levels of Abstraction

Article excerpt

Linda G. Elson. Paradox Lost: A Cross-Contextual Definition of Levels of Abstraction. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, 2010.

A logical paradox consists of a statement that if true is false and if false is true. Consider, for example, the assertion "I am lying." If it is true and I am lying, then I am saying something false (that is what a lie is) and if it is false and I am saying something false, then it is true that I am lying. Such a statement is self-contradictory in that it goes against itself. Its truth links to its falsity and its falsity links to its truth.

At the turn of the twentieth century, Bertrand Russell demonstrated that any logical system could be shown to contain paradoxes, and that all of logic would be threatened if paradoxes could not be restricted. The solution for Russell was his theory of types, which posits that every statement must fall into one type or another, so that it was not allowed that there be a statement of more than one type. "I am lying" is both a statement and about my statement and thus is not to be allowed into a system. …

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