Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

Validity and Reliability Analysis for the Teacher Determination for Democratic Behavior Scale

Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

Validity and Reliability Analysis for the Teacher Determination for Democratic Behavior Scale

Article excerpt


The main aim of this study is to develop a scale to assess the extent to which teachers display democratic behaviors they are supposed to display in in-classroom teaching practices and the level of their determination in displaying such behaviors. The study group of this survey is composed of 446 second grade high school students, 243 girls and 203 boys. Survey data had been gathered through the evaluation of branch/guidance teachers by their students within the framework of the scale data that are formed by literature survey and harnessing some means of scaling employed in several research studies. Validity and reliability analysis were made upon such data through SPSS 11.00. For validity, KMO value and Bartlett test values are calculated on the gathered data. Afterwards, factor analysis of the data was made and item-total correlations and power of differentiation (t test) are determined. For the reliability analysis, levels of internal consistency and ability to perform decisive measurements were computed. At the end of analysis, KMO value of scale is measured as 0,936 and Bartlett test value is p<0,001. Items in the scale were collected under a single factor. Item-test correlations and discrimination power of items in the scale are significant. The Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient of the scale was found to be 0.98. The scale has proven to perform decisive measurements as significant relationships are found for each item when the relationship among evaluations by 139 students is analyzed. In conclusion, it can be concluded that the "Scale for Democratic Teacher' Behavior Determination" is a valid and reliable scale.

Key Words

Democratic Teacher, Class, Validity, Reliability, Scale.

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Democracies' need for education is not different from that of other systems aiming to organize life. Like all systems, democracy needs individuals who embrace its values to maintain its existence. It can be asserted that education is the healthiest and the most reliable way to meet this need. As suggested by Barber (1997), "there is only one way for democracy and it is education" (cited in O'Brien, 2006, p. 33). For Dewey (1996), democracy is about coexistence and education is main component.

It is often underlined that schools and classrooms play a crucial role in the democratization of society and social structure. Actually, "according to Getzels and Thelen (1960), schools and classrooms are social systems with their institutions and behavioral norms It is believed that attitudes and behaviors acquired in democratic classrooms will be carried beyond this academic environment to the social arena" (cited in Perliger, Canetti-Nisim & Pedahzur, 2006, p. 122). Teachers assume significant tasks both in establishing democratic school or classroom environments and in helping education perform its functions. Indeed, it is frequently suggested that democratic education can only be created by democratic teachers (Aydogan & Kukul, 2003; Karakütük, 2001; Üstün & Demirbag, 2003; Yesil, 2002). Kesici (2008) suggests that "performance of these tasks depends on an educator who believes in democratic values. A democratic educator is an individual who believes in the rule of law, equality of all individuals, and the necessity of fundamental rights and freedoms" (p. 63).

Two points can be attached particular importance for teachers to be able to perform the duties they assume in this process. The first is the necessity to take democracy as a whole and reflect all its values and characteristics to the educational environment. The second is that the permanence of this situation (Aly, 2005; Dobozy, 2007). In this framework, teachers should first reflect all the values and characteristics of democracy in their behaviors persistently (in a determined fashion). Therefore, it is important to determine the teachers' levels of performing their fundamental duties in the process of educational democratization in the framework of the "entirety" and "determination" criteria. …

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