Academic journal article McGill Journal of Education (Online)

ENHANCING MENTORS' EFFECTIVENESS: THE PROMISE OF THE ADAPTIVE MENTORSHIP^sup ©^ MODEL/AMÉLIORER L'EFFICACITÉ DES MENTORS : LES PROMESSES DU MODÈLE DE MENTORAT ADAPTÉ^sup ©^

Academic journal article McGill Journal of Education (Online)

ENHANCING MENTORS' EFFECTIVENESS: THE PROMISE OF THE ADAPTIVE MENTORSHIP^sup ©^ MODEL/AMÉLIORER L'EFFICACITÉ DES MENTORS : LES PROMESSES DU MODÈLE DE MENTORAT ADAPTÉ^sup ©^

Article excerpt

ABSTRACT. The Adaptive Mentorship (AM) model is described and implications are raised for its wider implementation. The researchers derived the AM model from earlier contingency leadership approaches; and during the last two decades, they have further refined AM through application and research. They suggest the benefits and transferability of AM to any field to assist protégés in developing professional proficiency in their respective contexts.

AMÉLIORER L'EFFICACIT EFFICACITÉ DES MENTORS : LES PROMESSES DU MODÈLE DE MENTORAT ADAPTÉ©

RÉSUMÉ. Dans cet article, le modèle de mentorat adapté© (MA) est décrit et ses implications dans l'optique d'une implémentation étendue sont soulevées. Les chercheurs dérivent le modèle MA des approches précédentes de contingence du leadership. De plus, au cours des deux dernières décennies, ils ont raffiné davantage leur modèle via l'application et la recherche. Ainsi, les auteurs exposent les bénéfices et la transférabilité du MA dans tous les domaines pour permettre aux protégés de développer des compétences professionnelles dans leurs milieux respectifs.

Adaptive Mentorship© (AM) is a promising model that has proven effective in enhancing the mentorship/supervisory process. We believe that AM (which we formerly called Contextual Supervision or CS, and which we derived from a range of contingency and situational leadership approaches, e.g., Blake & Mouton, 1978; Hersey & Blanchard, 1988; Fiedler & Garcia, 1987) is worthy of consideration for application in any mentorship situation in any field (Ralph, Walker, & Wimmer, 2008b). This article will provide a background and description of the Adaptive Mentorship© Model and how it works, together with a summary of findings from research related to the model. The article concludes with a discussion of the model, including consideration of the authors' claim that the Adaptive Mentorship© Model warrants further use and research in various contexts.

BACKGROUND

Adaptive Mentorship© is a model that focuses on mentors adjusting their mentorship behaviour in response to the task-specific development level of protégés they are assisting in the learning/employment situation. We represent the AM model in Figure 1.

The outer border of the diagram represents the context of the mentorship relationship (hence the earlier Contextual Supervision title). These contextual factors include psychological, social, organizational, and cultural aspects within the practicum/work setting. Many of these influences cannot be changed by the mentor or the protégé; however, the key factor over which the participants do have direct control is their own behaviour. Mentors can change their mentorship response, which consists of two dimensions shown in the A-grid: their adaptive "task" response (i.e., the degree of direction given regarding the technical, mechanical, or procedural aspect of the protégé's performance), and their adaptive "support" response (i.e., the degree of expression regarding the "human" or psycho/social/emotional aspect of the protégé's learning).

For the protégés, the key element over which they have most control is their competency-specific developmental level in performing particular skill-sets. This developmental-level consists of two dimensions, as depicted in the D-grid: their developmental "competence" level (i.e., their ability to perform the task), and their developmental "confidence" level (i.e., their degree of self-assurance, composure, and feelings of security and/or safety in performing the skill-set). The core of the AM model is represented by the larger arrows linking the D-grid with the A-grid, which portray the mentor's matching of one of four basic adaptive "A" responses with a similarly numbered "D" developmental-level exhibited by the protégé in his/her performance of the particular competency.

APPLYING ADAPTIVE MENTORSHIP©

Much of the previous research on Adaptive Mentorship© (AM) was conducted with pre-service teachers and their mentors (i. …

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