Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

An Investigation of Decision Making Styles and the Five-Factor Personality Traits with Respect to Attachment Styles

Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

An Investigation of Decision Making Styles and the Five-Factor Personality Traits with Respect to Attachment Styles

Article excerpt

Abstract

The aim of this research is to investigate if the attachment styles significantly predict the decision self-esteem, decision making styles and five-factor personality traits. Subjects of the study were 567 students in total from different faculties of Selçuk University. The results of the study showed that the attachment styles of the students significantly predict decision self-esteem, decision making styles and personality traits. It was seen that secure attachment style is the most significant predictor of decision self-esteem and vigilance, buck-passing, procrastination scores of decision making styles, whereas the most significant predictor of hypervigilance decision making style is fearful attachment style. Secure attachment style is the most significant predictor of neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, openness to experience sub-dimensions of personality traits and the most significant predictor of conscientiousness is preoccupied attachment style.

Key Words

Attachment Styles, Decision Making Styles, Five Factor Personality Traits.

A person's identity is shaped by the relationships with the environment starting from the early years of one's life (Hamarta, 2004). However the relationship between the child and his/her mother or caregiver(s) at the beginning of the childhood was only for the physical existence of the child, afterwards this relationship style is internalized and becomes a relationship style that affects all aspects of life. The bond established between the infant and mother helps the mother to be sensitive to the infant's signals of distress or fear and provides "a secure base" which offers infant comfort, protection and help to explore the environment (Cooper, Shaver, & Collins, 1998). Bowlby (1973, 1982) was the first researcher to suggest a bond between mother and child and he formulated a model that exhibits the functions of this bond. According to Bowlby "attachment is an affectional bond and a strong desire of establishing a relationship or seeking for closer proximity with a specific figure when she/ he is sick, tired or frightened". This bond comprises comfort, safety and support. In addition, attachment has been defined as an intimate and affectionate relationship between two people (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978).

According to attachment theory, people develop internal working models which are related to their relationships with other individuals during infancy, childhood, and adulthood. According to Bowlby (1973) an individual's initial attachment is established early in the development with his/her primary caregiver(s), and this provides a cognitive framework for his/her later social relationships. Internal working models are composed of two patterns that are associated with each other. Self model is the representation of perception about the degree to which a person internalized a sense of his or her self-worth and the self lovability whereas the others model reflects the degree to which others are expected to be available and supportive when needed (Bowlby, 1973; Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991; VanIjzendoorn & Bakermans-Kranenburg, 1996).

Recent studies (Bartholomew, 1990; Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991) on attachment focused on a four-category classification model. Four attachment patterns are constructed in terms of positivity or negativity of a person's self and others in relationships. Individuals who are characterized as secure have a positive self model and a positive model of others. These individuals indicate a sense of lovability and an expectation that other people are generally supportive and accepting. Individuals who are characterized as preoccupied have a negative self model and a positive model of others. These individuals indicate a sense of unworthiness (unlovability) about the self and a sense of worthiness (lovability) about others. Individuals who are classified as dismissing have a positive self model, but a negative model of others and give excessive importance to independence. …

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