Academic journal article Journal of Nursing Measurement

Psychometric Evaluation of the Spanish and English Versions of the Spiritual Coping Strategies Scale

Academic journal article Journal of Nursing Measurement

Psychometric Evaluation of the Spanish and English Versions of the Spiritual Coping Strategies Scale

Article excerpt

The Spiritual Coping Strategies (SCS) Scale measures how frequently religious and nonreligious (spiritual) coping strategies are used to cope with a stressful experience. This study's purpose is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the newly translated Spanish version of the SCS. A total of 51 bilingual adults completed the SCS in Spanish and English, with 25 completing them again 2-3 weeks later. Internal consistency reliability for the Spanish (r = 0.83) and English (r = 0.82) versions of the SCS in the total sample were good. Test-retest reliability was .84 for the Spanish and .80 for the English version. Spanish and English responses to the SCS items and the resulting score for the subscales and the total scale were not significantly different. Scores on the English and Spanish versions were correlated as expected with time since the stressful event and happiness with family and with spouse or partner, supporting the validity of the Spanish SCS. Study findings support the reliability and validity of the newly translated Spanish SCS.

Keywords: spirituality; Spanish; stressful events; coping strategies

Spiritual coping strategies are often used by adults facing stressful life events that threaten their own physical and mental health or that of loved ones. Spiritual coping strategies can help them adapt to their situation by reducing their psychological distress and improving their ability to cope (Dunn & Shelton, 2007). Spirituality as a coping strategy can help people to achieve a state of wholeness or equilibrium and promote healing (Chiu, Clark, & Daroszewski, 2000; Tuck, McCain, & Elswick, 2001; Woods & Ironson, 1999). If they hold and practice spiritual beliefs, individuals diagnosed with chronic and/ or terminal conditions and those dealing with death of a loved one are better able to cope with these situations, exhibit fewer depressive symptoms, and have a better overall health-related quality of life (Cotton et al., 2006; Meraviglia, 2004; Sowell et al., 2000). Hispanics account for 15.1% (45.5 million) of the U.S. population (U.S. Census Bureau, 2008) and 50.5% of the overall U.S. population growth in the last decade (Pew Hispanic Center, 2008). Despite this rapid increase, measures of spiritual and religious coping strategies in Spanish are limited. Thus, the purpose of this study was to translate the Spiritual Coping Strategies (SCS) Scale into Spanish, test the psychometric properties of the newly translated measure, and compare these properties for the newly translated Spanish version with those of the existing English version.

BACKGROUND

Spirituality and Spiritual Coping Strategies

Although often used interchangeably, spirituality differs from religiosity. Spirituality incorporates a person's values, attitudes, rituals, and perspectives and includes religious practices; whereas religiosity is embedded in organized systems of faith or religions (Burkhardt & Nagi-Jacobson, 1989; McSherry, Cash, & Ross, 2004). Spirituality involves caring for the human spirit; achieving a state of wholeness; a connection with oneself, others, nature, and God's or life's forces; and an attempt to understand the meaning and purpose of life (O'Brien, 2008; Burkhardt & Nagi-Jacobson, 1989). Spiritual coping strategies are used to obtain comfort, provide security and peace, achieve a state of wholeness or equilibrium, and evoke healing. Meditation and communing with nature, connecting to others who have experienced a similar event in one's social network, communicating one's innermost thoughts in an accepting and trusting environment such as a support group, spiritual guide, and/or a close friend are examples of spiritual coping strategies (Armentrout, 2007; Klass, 1999; Meert, Thurston, & Briller, 2005; Wilson & Miles, 2001). Religious coping strategies, such as prayer and attending religious meetings, are used to develop or maintain a relationship with God and to ask God for forgiveness for any perceived culpability in the stressful event or for help in dealing with the event (Amentrout, 2007; Anderson, Marwit, Vandenberg, & Chibnall, 2005; Kavanaugh & Hershberger, 2005; Van & Meleis, 2003). …

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