This paper delineates the development path that Confucianism outgrows as the state ideology in Han Dynasty, exploring into the selecting, changing and constructing process of ideology in Qin and Han dynasties.
Key words: The Confucianism; The legalism; Ideology effectiveness
Resumé: Ce journal trace le chemin de développement pour lequel le Confucianisme devient trop grand comme l'idéologie d'état dans la Dynastie Han, explorant dans la sélection, le changement et le processus de construction d'idéologie dans Qin et des dynasties Han.
Mots-clés: Le Confucianisme; Le légalisme; Efficacité d'idéologie
Qin and Han dynasties are in the period of great change in Chinese history, particularly the ideological and cultural change brought about by the political unity.
1. LACKING IDEOLOGY WAS ONE OF THE REASONS FOR QIN'S ENDING
Before the establishment of Qin Dynasty Lvshichunqiu is an important attempt to unify the ideology, aiming at providing theoretic and cultural preparation for Qin to conquer the other states and the new dynasty's long-term stability. Upon finding the demerits of legislature adopted by Qin, Lvshichunqiu advocates the strategy of "Combining Confucianism with Taoism, Incorporating Logicians and Legalism" to substitute the dominant legalism in Qin state. Although the suggestions in Lvshichunqiu have not been adopted by the Emperor Qin, it conducted a historic effort to unify feudal ideologies and promoted the integration of various schools at that time.
Having annexed the other six states, Qin became the first centralized feudal dynasty in Chinese history. With reference to using what kind of state ideology to rule and manage the newly-established dynasty, Qin Dynasty has also made a number of attempts. For instance, "Five Elements" theory has been used to justify the legality of the new dynasty. Fengshan and gods worship were invoked to promote the supremacy of monarchical power. A variety of cultures of the States including Confucianism were fused to serve its political purpose. Unfortunately, Qin Empire failed in the attempt to integrate various schools of thoughts in order to establish a unified ideology because of the difference and conflicts between the East cultural system and the West cultural system. Qin quickly took to cultural tyranny. Legalism is dominated in Qin for two reasons: one is its legalistic tradition and the other is its strategic principle. In other words, legalism in Qin Empire is a practical political strategy rather than an ideology to unify thinking and to consolidate the regime. (This can be proved by the difference between Qin Dynasty's legalism and Han Fei's ideological system.) Since cultural tyranny has prevented other various schools of thoughts from becoming the ideologies which may play the roles of regime maintenance and adjustment, Qin Empire perished soon. lacking ideology was one of the reasons.
2. THE IDEOLOGICAL TRANSFORMATION FROM TAOISM TO CONFUCIANISM
Han rulers regarded reflecting Qin's tyranny as the starting point for the construction of ideology. After many years of war and reflecting Qin's tyranny and Legalism, the rulers of earlier Han Dynasty uphold Huang-Lao (a kind of Taoism )as the guiding philosophy of state ideology. Huang-Lao matched well with people's needs for peace and production, so the prosperity arose during the periods of Wen Emperor and Jing Emperor.
Despite prevalent Taoism in the early Han dynasty, Confucians are active to promote the revival of Confucianism rather than giving up political pursuit, theoretically characterizing the combination of Confucianism and Taoism. After a period of peace and production, the economy has been tremendously developed. However, However, Huang-Lao began to show its shortcomings and the social crisis was becoming increasingly severe. …