Academic journal article The Spanish Journal of Psychology

Sex Differences in Parents' Estimations of Their Own and Their Children's Multiple Intelligences: A Portuguese Replication

Academic journal article The Spanish Journal of Psychology

Sex Differences in Parents' Estimations of Their Own and Their Children's Multiple Intelligences: A Portuguese Replication

Article excerpt

In this study, 148 Portuguese adults (M = 45.4 years) rated themselves and their children on overall IQ and on H. Gardner (1999) 10 intelligence subtypes. Men's self-estimates were not significantly higher than women's on any of the 11 estimates. The results were in line with previous studies, in that both sexes rated the overall intelligence of their first male children higher than the first female children. Higher parental IQ self-estimates correspond with higher IQ estimates for children. Globally parents estimated that their sons had significantly higher IQs than their daughters. In particular, parents rated their son's spiritual intelligence higher than those of their daughters. Children's age and sex, and parents' age and sex were all non-significant predictors of the overall "g" score estimates of the first two children. Participants thought verbal, mathematical, and spatial intelligence were the best indicators of the overall intelligence for self and children. There were no sex differences in experience of, or attitudes towards, intelligence testing. Results are discussed in terms of the growing literature in the self-estimates of intelligence, as well as limitations of that approach.

Keywords: gender differences, parental perceptions, multiple intelligences, self-estimates.

En este estudio, 148 adultos portugueses (M = 45.4 años) evaluaron su CI general y el de sus hijos y los 10 subtipos de inteligencia de H. Gardner (1999). La auto-estimación de los hombres no fue significativamente más alta que la de las mujeres en ninguna des las 11 estimativas. Los resultados estuvieron en línea con estudios previos, en que ambos los sexos evaluaron la inteligencia global de su primogénito masculino más elevadamente que la de su primogénita hembra. El elevado CI parental auto-estimado correspondió con el CI estimado de los hijos. Globalmente los padres estimaron que sus hijos tenían un CI significativamente más elevado que el de sus hijas. En particular, los padres evaluaron la inteligencia espiritual de sus hijos más elevadamente que la de sus hijas. Ni el sexo y edad de los jóvenes, ni el sexo y edad de los padres fueron predictores de la puntuación general "g" estimada de los dos primeros hijos. Los participantes consideraron que la inteligencia verbal, matemática y espacial eran los mejores predictores de la inteligencia global tanto para ellos propios como para sus hijos. No hubo diferencias significativas de género en la experiencia, o actitudes en relación, al test de la inteligencia. Los resultados y las limitaciones fueron discutidos en términos de la creciente literatura sobre el enfoque de la auto-estimación de la inteligencia.

Palabras clave: diferencias de género, percepciones parentales, inteligencias múltiples, auto-estimación

Intelligence is of considerable interest to academics and lay people alike (Cattel, 1987; Eysenck, 1981; Flynn, 1987; Gardner, 1999; Mackintosh, 1998; Sternberg, 1985). Over the past decade there have been a number of studies concerned with self-estimates of intelligence. Although various other studies predated it (e.g. Hogan, 1978), it has been Beloff's (1992) study on sex differences in estimated IQ that has provoked most papers since (Bennett, 1996, 1997, 2000; Byrd & Stacey, 1993; Furhnam, 2000; Furnham & Baguma, 1999; Furnham, Clark, & Bailey, 1999; Furnham & Fong, 2000; Furnham, Fong, & Martin, 1999; Furnham, Hosoe, & Tang, 2002; Furnham & Rawles, 1995; Neto & Furnham, 2006; Neto, Ruiz, & Furnham, 2008; Petrides & Furnham, 2000). Studies have nearly all observed higher male estimations (by themselves and others), for overall, as well as various facets of intelligence. Of perhaps greater importance is the finding that parents think their (first born) sons are brighter than their daughters (Furnham, 2000; Furnham, Reeves, & Budhani, 2002). This may have deleterious consequences for females, especially female children, in terms of self-confidence, achievement, and school subject choices. …

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