Academic journal article The Spanish Journal of Psychology

Dependence and Physical Exercise: Spanish Validation of the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised (EDS-R)

Academic journal article The Spanish Journal of Psychology

Dependence and Physical Exercise: Spanish Validation of the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised (EDS-R)

Article excerpt

The purpose of this study was to validate the Spanish version of the Exercise Dependence Scale- Revised (EDS-R). To achieve this goal, a sample of 531 sport center users was used and the psychometric properties of the EDS-R were examined through different analyses. The results supported both the first-order seven-factor model and the higher-order model (seven first-order factors and one second-order factor). The structure of both models was invariant across age. Correlations among the subscales indicated a related factor model, supporting construct validity of the scale. Alpha values over .70 (except for Reduction in Other Activities) and suitable levels of temporal stability were obtained. Users practicing more than three days per week had higher scores in all subscales than the group practicing with a frequency of three days or fewer. The findings of this study provided reliability and validity for the EDS-R in a Spanish context.

Keywords: sport centers, physical activity, exercise dependence, validation.

El objetivo de este estudio fue validar la versión española de la Escala Revisada de Dependencia del Ejercicio (EDS-R). Para ello se utilizó una muestra de 531 usuarios de centros deportivos y se analizaron las propiedades psicométricas de la EDS-R a través de diferentes análisis. Los resultados ofrecieron apoyo tanto a la estructura de siete factores como al modelo de orden superior (siete factores de orden primario y un factor de orden secundario). La estructura de ambos modelos se mostró invariante por edad. Las correlaciones entre las subescalas indicaron un modelo de factores relacionados que apoya la validez de constructo de la escala. Se obtuvieron valores alfa de Cronbach superiores a .70 (salvo para la subescala Reducción de Otras Actividades), y niveles adecuados de estabilidad temporal. Los usuarios que informaron practicar más de tres días por semana obtuvieron puntuaciones más altas en todas las subescalas respecto al grupo que informó practicar con una frecuencia semanal de tres o menos días. Los resultados de este estudio proporcionan evidencias para la fiabilidad y validez de la EDS-R en el contexto español.

Palabras clave: centros deportivos, actividad física, dependencia del ejercicio, validación.

Research has extensively shown that physical exercise produces positive physical and psychological benefits (Biddle & Fox, 1989; Glenister, 1996; Lubans, Foster, & Biddle, 2008). However, if practiced excessively, physical exercise can also have negative physical and psychological effects. In fact, recent investigations have indicated that people can become dependent on exercise, similarly to substances such as alcohol, tobacco, or other drugs (Davis, 2000).

Exercise dependence has also been called addictive, obligatory, or excessive exercise, addiction to exercise or commitment to exercise (Blumenthal, O'Toole, & Chang, 1984; Cohen, 1995; Farrell & Thompson, 1998; Kagan, 1987). In general, the terms describe a condition in which the practice of a moderate or intense exercise becomes a compulsive behavior. Specifically, exercise dependence manifests as a strong desire to perform physical practice in one's free time, which becomes an uncontrollable behavior and is expressed in the form of physiological symptoms (e.g., tolerance, abstinence) and/or psychological symptoms (e.g., anxiety, depression) (Hausenblas & Symons Downs, 2002a). Nevertheless, research on exercise dependence has been ambiguous, because as yet, the terminology of the constructs that surround this phenomenon, its definition, and the measures to assess it were not well developed. This is a challenge for basic and applied research because the factors that predominate, concur, and perpetuate exercise dependence are still unknown, making its prevention and treatment more difficult.

Until now, there have been several attempts to define, operationalize, and measure exercise dependence. …

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