The aim of this study was to explore the psychometric properties of the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form 3 (YSQ-SF3) among Turkish adolescents. A total of 356 high school students (198 females and 158 males) whose ages ranged between 15 and 18 participated in the study, and were administered the YSQ-SF3, the Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T), the Trait Anger Inventory (ANGT), and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Higher-order factor analysis run using the original 18 Early maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) revealed three internally consistent higher-order factors (i.e., schema domains) which were named Impaired Limits-Exaggerated Standards, Disconnection-Rejection, and Impaired Autonomy-Other Directedness. Concurrent validity analyses indicated that even after controlling for the effects of positive and negative affect, the Impaired Limits-Exaggerated Standards schema domain was significantly associated with anger, while Disconnection-Rejection and Impaired Autonomy-Other Directedness schema domains were significantly associated with anxiety. Findings are discussed in line with the literature.
Keywords: Early maladaptive schemas, Adolescent, Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ)
It has been proposed that early childhood experiences with significant others lead to organized thoughts and feelings about self, others and the world, which shape the way individuals perceive and respond to new experiences (Segal, 1988). These organized thoughts, feelings and behaviors were named schemas. According to Young (1999, p. 9), Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) are "extremely stable and enduring themes that develop during childhood, elaborated throughout an individual's lifetime, and dysfunctional to a significant degree". Moreover, the tendency to overvalue the information consistent with the schemas or to neglect the one inconsistent with the schemas strengthens them, and thus leads to the maintenance of EMSs. Young (1999) proposed that there were 18 different schemas within five main domains.
Young, Klosko and Weishaar (2003) called the first schema domain "Disconnection and Rejection" which refers to the unsatisfied needs of acceptance, security, safety, stability, and nurturing. These needs are not provided by parents in a predictable way. Generally, the family environment is cold, rejecting, abusive, unpredictable, and explosive. This schema domain includes schemas of abandonment / instability, mistrust / abuse, emotional deprivation, defectiveness, and social isolation. The second domain has been called the "Impaired Autonomy and Performance" domain which refers to unsatisfied needs of separating and functioning independently. This schema domain involves schemas of dependency, vulnerability to harm or illness, enmeshment / undeveloped self, and failure. The third domain has been named "Impaired Limits" and refers to the characteristics of people who have trouble fulfilling responsibilities towards others and in respecting the rights of others since internal limits concerning reciprocity and self-discipline have not developed. Parents of these people tend to be generally overindulgent and permissive, and also they tend to give no direction, limits and discipline to their children. This schema domain comprises schemas of entitlement / grandiosity and insufficient self-control. The fourth domain has been termed the "Other Directedness" domain which refers to the characteristics of people giving top priority to meet the needs of others at the expense of sacrificing their own needs. They give high importance to gaining approval, maintaining emotional connection or avoiding discrimination. In the families of these people, love tends to be expressed conditionally, in that children must suppress their own needs and feelings in order to gain acceptance from parents. This schema domain consists of schemas of subjugation, self-sacrifice, and approval seeking. The fifth and last domain is "Over-vigilance and Inhibition" which refers to the characteristics of people who suppress their spontaneous feelings and impulses, and rather follow strict and internalized rigid rules and expectations at the expense of happiness, self-expression and relaxed and close relationships. …