Academic journal article McGill Journal of Education (Online)

Framing an Integrative Approach to the Education and Development of Teachers in Canada/formuler Une Approche Intégrée De la Formation et Du Développement Des Enseignants Au Canada

Academic journal article McGill Journal of Education (Online)

Framing an Integrative Approach to the Education and Development of Teachers in Canada/formuler Une Approche Intégrée De la Formation et Du Développement Des Enseignants Au Canada

Article excerpt

ABSTRACT . The education of teachers in Canada typically consists of a sequence of non-integrated and partially alternating phases: pre-service university-based course work, pre-service school-based practica, job-imbedded induction, professional development sessions. This article proposes an integrative approach to the education of teachers that links these different phases: Collaborative Professional Development Centres. The article draws on teacher education scholarship and research to articulate a number of assumptions about learning to teach and the purpose of teacher education, and then argues (a) that the traditional non-integrated approach to the education of teachers is incompatible with these assumptions, and (b) that these assumptions provide an excellent framework for the idea of Collaborative Professional Development Centres.

FORMULER UNE APP ROCHE INTÉGRÉE DE LA FORMATION ET DU DÉVELOPP EMENT DES ENSEIGNANTS AU CANADA

Résumé. La formation des enseignants au Canada se résume typiquement en une séquence de phases non intégrées et plus ou moins alternées : des travaux universitaires précédant l'expérience en classe, des stages en classe visant à former les futurs maÎtres, l'intégration en milieu de travail et des sessions de développement professionnel. Dans ce texte, l'auteur propose de former les enseignants par le biais d'une approche intégrée, reliant les différentes phases, au sein de centres coopératifs de développement professionnel. Se basant sur le savoir académique et la recherche en formation des enseignants, l'auteur émet une série d'hypothèses en ce qui a trait à « apprendre à enseigner » et le but de la formation des futurs maÎtres. Ensuite, il soutient que (a) l'approche traditionnelle non intégrée utilisée pour former les enseignants est incompatible avec ces hypothèses et que (b) ces hypothèses forment un excellent cadre, une base pour la création de centres coopératifs de développement professionnel.

INTRODUCTION

In Canada, the education of school teachers is divided into the pre-service phase and the in-service phase. The first phase is separated into university-based course work and school-based practica, while the second phase is sometimes separated into the induction (initial teaching) and post-induction phases. The two main phases of the education of teachers are not only chronologically separated, they are also divided with respect to location and responsibility, with university-based responsibility for pre-service education and field-based responsibility for induction and beyond. Also, there is generally very little contact between the university and the field in the different phases of the education of teachers: the university-based course work phase of pre-service education happens with very little influence from the field, while the school-based practicum and in-service phase happen with very little influence from the university.

As a result of this division, the education of teachers in Canada is marked by disconnectedness and incoherence. While a division of place, time, personnel, and responsibility in the different phases in the education of teachers could reflect different purposes and foci in the overall preparation of teachers, the division of labour that exists in the course work and in the practicum is detrimental to teacher candidates' learning to teach for at least two reasons. First, research indicates a prominent "washing out" effect of the university-based pre-service learning once graduates move into the in-service phase and are socialized into the teaching and learning practices in their respective schools (see the references in Brouwer & Korthagen, 2005, pp. 154-155). Second, research points to the importance of connections and coherence as central features of successful teacher education programs (see the references in Darling-Hammond & Hammerness, 2005, p. 392).

The need for an integrative approach to the education of teachers has been considered in the U. …

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