Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

Development of the Parent Irrational Beliefs Scale*

Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

Development of the Parent Irrational Beliefs Scale*

Article excerpt


The aim of this study was to develop the scale to assess irrational beliefs of parents and test its psychometric properties. The research sample was comprised of parents whose children were attending primary schools. The results from the factor analysis were used to determine two factors in the scale: Expectations and Perfectionism. To examine the validity of the scale, the correlations between the scores on the Expectations sub-scale and the Dysfonctional Attitute Scale (DAS) (.14), the Irrational Belief Scale-Short Form (IBS-S) (.52), and the Beck Depresion Inventory (BDI) (.30) were assessed. The perfectionism sub-scale was correlated with DAS (.27), IBS-S (.54), BDI (.19) . The test-retest correlations were .84 for Expectations sub-scale and .80 for Perfectionism sub-scale. Cronbach Alpha internal consistency coefficient were .89 for Expectations sub-scale and .86 for Perfectionism sub-scale.

Key Words

Irrational Beliefs, Parent, Validity and Reliability.

According to the cognitive behavioral approach, thoughts that are regarded as irrational beliefs or cognitive distortions are important factors for the emergence and continuation of dysfunctional behaviors and psychological disorders (Beck, 1976; Beck, Rush, Shaw, & Emery, 1979; Dryden, 2005; Ellis, 1975, 1977). The literature in this area has focused on specific beliefs than general irrational beliefs (Dobson & Dobson, 2009). Since 1970s, many studies emphasize that the irrational or dysfunctional beliefs about parenting play significant role in parental behaviors and attitudes with regard to child-rearing (Ellis, Moseley, & Wolfe, 1966; Joyce, 1989, 1990; 1994). The results of study showed that the irrational beliefs about parenting were significantly associated with level of parental stress (Graeves, 1997; Mcdonalt, 1993; Starko, 1991) and depression (Eryüksel & Akün, 2003), perceived parenting efficacy (Ackerman, 1991), parent-adolescent conflict (Robin ve Foster, 1989).

Parental beliefs are also called in different ways; such as child rearing beliefs, parenting cognitions, parenting schemas. In a broad definition, however, parental beliefs consist of parents' beliefs about child rearing, parental expectation of their children's performing certain behavioral patterns, parental perceptions of children behavior and parental roles as childcares, parental attribution of their children's behavior, and parental self-efficacy (Azar, Nix, & Makin-Bryd, 2005; Bornstein & Cote, 2004; Haskett, Scott, Grant, Ward, & Robinson, 2003; Johnston, 1996).

Joyce's (2006) have identified following irrational parenting beliefs: a) Demandingness: This category of irrational beliefs contains absolutist, rigid beliefs which include should, ought, have to statements. b) Making it Awfulizing: In awfulizing, a negative event is evaluated as worse than it absolutely should be. c) Low frustration tolerance: These beliefs assert the fact that one cannot tolerate or bear an event or set of circumstances, therefore the situation appears to be intolerable. d) Global evaluation of human worth: In this belief category, individuals as human beings are valued depending on their success and skills.

Two scales were developed to evaluate irrational parental beliefs in the literature One inventory which is often used is the Parent Irrational Belief Scale (Ackerman, 1991), which investigates parental expectations of their children and themselves. Similarly, Cognition/Belief Subscale of the Parent Adolescent Relationship Questionnaire (Roehling & Robin, 1986) was developed to measure the relationship between adolescents and their parents assess irrational parenting beliefs. The Parent Adolescent Relationship Questionnaire was adapted to Turkish culture by Eryüksel (1996).

No scale has been described in the Turkish literature that could measure irrational beliefs of parents. The aim of this study is to develop a scale that does not measure specific irrational beliefs displayed by parents. …

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