Academic journal article Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal

Goal Orientation and Self-Efficacy as Predictors of Male Adolescent Soccer Players' Motivation to Participate

Academic journal article Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal

Goal Orientation and Self-Efficacy as Predictors of Male Adolescent Soccer Players' Motivation to Participate

Article excerpt

The purpose in this investigation was to determine whether OT not goal orientation and self-efficacy level could predict the motivation to participate in adolescent male soccer players. Participants were 159 male soccer players aged 13 and 14 (M = 13.43, SD = .49). Multiple regression analysis was used to analyze data. Achievement/status and competition were positively predicted by ego orientation. Skill development was positively predicted by task orientation. Team affiliation, being active/movement, and fitness/energy were positively predicted by self-efficacy. Goal orientation and self-efficacy were not found to be significant predictors of fun and friendship.

Keywords: goal orientation, self-efficacy, participation, motivation, soccer player, adolescent.

Numerous explanations are given for the factors affecting individuals' decisions to participate in and to continue to participate in sports activities (Biddle, Soos, & Chatzisarantis, 1999; Ryckman & Hamel, 1993). Descriptive approaches related to individuals' motives for participating in and continuing to participate in sports activities provide important information that helps scientists in the bid to increase individual participation in sports activities. Individuals' motives for participating in physical activity are correlated to many psychological structures. Goal orientation and self-efficacy of individuals, which have an important place in explaining participation motivation, have been assessed from various points of view in correlated structures.

Researchers have shown that there are links between goal orientation, namely as task orientation and ego orientation (Duda, 1992; Nicholls, 1989), and the perceived purpose of sport (Duda, 1989). In achievement goal theory, important differences in behavior are related to how success is perceived and competence evaluated (Nicholls, 1989). Individuals who adopt task orientation are interested in learning and developing skills, demonstrating mastery in the task, and working hard. The demonstration of ability is based on maximum effort and is self-referenced (Jagacinski & Strickland, 2000; Roberts, Spink, & Pemberton, 1999). Task-oriented individuals have been consistently linked to more intrinsic motivational patterns such as skill development and enjoyment (Papaioannou & Theodorakis, 1996). Nieminen, Varstala, and Manninen (2001) reported that task orientation was positively correlated with physically active/mastery and reaching for high standards. Duda (1989) found that task orientation was negatively related to the view that sport should improve social status. White, Duda, and Keller (1998) found that individuals high in task orientation tended to perceive that mastery/cooperation, and being physically active were important purposes for young people taking part in sport. Biddle, Soos, and Chatzisarantis (1999) emphasized the relationship between intention for physical activity and task orientation in adolescents. Individuals who orient towards ego goals, on the other hand, are more concerned with social comparisons, proving their ability, and receiving desirable, or avoiding negative, judgments about their performance. An ego-oriented person participates in an activity in order to demonstrate high ability and to minimize the demonstration of low ability compared to others (Duda, 1992). Ommundsen and Roberts (1996) reported that ego-oriented athletes view the purpose of sport as improving one's social status and recognition. Chie-der, Chen, Hung-yu, and Li-kang (2003) found ego orientation to be positively related to demonstration of ability, physical performance, and social support. In another study, White and Duda (1994) found that ego orientation was related to extrinsic sport participation motives such as recognition/status in adolescents.

The other important attribute associated with participation in physical activity is self-efficacy. Efficacy is defined as a person's belief in his or her ability and capacity to enact goal-directed behaviors within an activity context (FrederickRecascino, 2004). …

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