Academic journal article Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal

Development and Validation of a Short Version of the Parental Authority Questionnaire

Academic journal article Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal

Development and Validation of a Short Version of the Parental Authority Questionnaire

Article excerpt

A short version of Buri's (1991) 30-item Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ), a widely used measure of Baumrind's (1971) model of authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles, has been developed in this study. The participants were 3,025 middle and high school students from Oman. The sample was randomly divided into 2 subsamples. The first sample (N = 1,504) was used for the development of the short version, and the second sample (N = 1,521) served as the validation sample. The results indicate that a reduced 20-item PAQ fit the data better than the 30-item PAQ. The short version evidenced adequate validity and internal consistency. It was discussed and confirmed that the short version of the PAQ utilizes Baumrind's model of parenting styles as well as the original long version of the PAQ, and functions appropriately. This result is consistent with previous research.

Keywords: parenting styles, Parental Authority Questionnaire, validity, reliability, scale development, adolescents.

The construct of parenting style is used to describe parents' practices in socializing their children (Baumrind, 1991). It is a complex social process that characterizes the lifespan development of individuals (Lerner, 1984). It encompasses two dimensions of parenting: parental responsiveness and parental demandingness (Maccoby & Martin, 1983). Parental responsiveness refers to "the extent to which parents intentionaUy foster individuality, self-regulation, and self-assertion by being attuned, supportive, and acquiescent to chüdren's special needs and demands" (Baumrind, 1991, p. 62). Parental demandingness refers to "the claims parents make on chüdren to become integrated into the famüy whole, by their maturity demands, supervision, disciplinary efforts and willingness to confront the chUd who disobeys" (Baumrind, 1991, pp. 61-62). Baumrind (1971) identified three major parenting styles, reflecting distinct patterns of responsiveness and demandingness: authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive. Authoritative parents are both demanding and responsive. Authoritarian parents are highly demanding, but not responsive. Permissive parents are more responsive than demanding.

These parenting styles have been associated with differences in adolescents' behaviors and problems. In general, adolescents with authoritative parents tend to display more social competence and fewer psychological and behavioral problems than those of autiioritarian or permissive parents. SpecificaUy, it has been found tìiat adolescents with authoritative parents tend to achieve higher grades, be more self-reliant, less anxious, less likely to engage in delinquent behaviors, and more likely to adopt positive coping strategies than are adolescents with parents using other rearing styles. Also, the authoritarian parenting style has been linked to low academic achievement, the emergence of problems related to alcohol abuse, and high levels of frustration and criminal behavior (Assadi et al., 2007; Baumrind, 1991; Durbin, Darling, Steinberg, & Brown, 1993; Dwairy et al., 2006; Dwairy & Menshar, 2006; Lamborn, Mants, Steinberg, & Dornbusch, 1991; Nguyen, 2008; Steinberg, Mounts, Lamborn, & Dombusch, 1991; Weiss & Schwarz, 1996).

In an attempt to assess and quantify Baumrind's (1971) model of parenting styles, Buri (1991) developed the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ) to measure the three parenting styles from an adolescent's perspective. It comprises 10 items for each parenting style and includes identical questionnaires for the mother and for the father. Buri (1991) reported good internal consistency coefficients ranging between .74 and .87 and two-week test-retest reliability coefficients ranging between .77 and .92, and presented evidence of construct and criterion-related validity.

Since its inception, interest in utilizing the PAQ to understand parenting styles and their correlates in various societies, such as Arab countries (e. …

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