Academic journal article Gender & Behaviour

Women Traficking in Peshawar, Pakistan: Does Socio-Psychological Perception Matter?

Academic journal article Gender & Behaviour

Women Traficking in Peshawar, Pakistan: Does Socio-Psychological Perception Matter?

Article excerpt


The present study was conducted in District Jail, Peshawar, Pakistan by selecting 84 offenders involved in Women Trafficking, through snow ball sampling techniques for measuring the respondent's knowledge on women trafficking with the psychological aspect, leading to women trafficking. Majority of the respondents i.e. (79.8%) considered little effects of social stigmatization followed by forced marriage for money (73.8%), feigned love (69.0%) and identifying normative behavior (61.9%) as the major causes of women trafficking in the study area. Moreover, a moderate but negative relation was determined between force marriage for money (Y =-0.418), early age group women fall prey to women trafficking (Y =-0.40) and a positive relationship between little effects of stigmatization (Y =0.310) with knowledge on women trafficking. In addition, a significant but negative relationship was also ascertained between forced marriage for money (p<0.05) with knowledge on women trafficking. The study concluded that the respondents had a clear vision of fatal consequences of women trafficking to the society, with no societal endorsement to love marriages rather adherence to the traditional arranged marriages, marriages for money was although in practice etc. the people faith in early marriage as pro religion. A comprehensive campaign on print and electronic media to propagate women trafficking as a curse to the society, strict punishment through legislative bodies approval, revisiting the religious concept of early marriages and cultural perspectives based on normative behavior while focusing on assimilation through academic research were forwarded as policy recommendations in light f the study.

Key Words: Women Trafficking, Attitude, Knowledge, and Measurement.

(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)


The UN (2000) Convention based on Supplement Protocol for Trafficking has termed it as the recruitment, with transportation to receive the trafficked or use of threat based on conviction, abduction allied with fraud and deception along with the abuse of power and payment for the purpose to get the benefits out of this profession. Trafficking in women has been defined as the movement of women from third world countries to European Union based on sexual exploitation (European Commission, 1996).

All acts are revolving around the recruitment, transportation across the boarders for work and services based on use of threat of power, abuse and coercion through which thousands of women in the sex industry across the globe are trafficked annually. Most of them are forced to prostitution which has gained a shape of a salable commodity. These acts with high economic return have enhanced the value of the trade as ranging from 68% to 87% annually of the total women migration (Global Alliance against Traffic in Women, 1999; Keefer, 2006; Hughes, 2004; and UNODC, 2006). It has been observed that Law and unequal status of women and girls in the origin (countries) and transit (routes) with assumption about women as property or commodities, servants and a source of satisfaction for promoting sex tourism with low, richer and high rate economic return as compared with jobs assigned to exploitation for economic gains based on short term strategies (Miller and Stewart, 1998; and ICMPD, 1999). Spector (1998) has concluded in his study that almost 50, 0000 women are annually trafficked to Europe. These figures have been shown in the US state department (2004) as ranging from 60, 0000 to 80, 0000 during April 2003 to March 2004, with 80% of females for sexual exploitations. Anonymous (2005), has hinted out in a report that the trafficked women are mostly young, usually sold to brothel owners. Women are sold everywhere like Chinese, Nepali, Bangkok and Bangladesh origin respectively. Women trafficking could easily be linked to political, socio-economic and gender based disparities. The rate of criminal organization is very vital as in most parts of the world including Russia, Eastern Europe, Hong Kong, Japan and Colombia; this business is managed and controlled by large criminal organizations (LHRLA, 1996; and IOM, 1999). …

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