Academic journal article Gender & Behaviour

Parenting Styles, Gender, Religiosity and Examination Malpractices

Academic journal article Gender & Behaviour

Parenting Styles, Gender, Religiosity and Examination Malpractices

Article excerpt


This study examined the influence of parenting styles, gender and religiousity on the attitude of students towards examination malpractices. One hundred and ninety -eight participants were used which comprises of 100 males and 98 females of Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba- Akoko in Ondo state. Parental care scale developed by Baumrid (1971), Religiousity affiliation scale developed by Omoluabi (1995) and Attitude towards examination cheating scale developed by Alarape and Onakoya (2003) were used to gather data from the students. The results showed that a very high positive significant correlation was found between parenting styles and religiousity (r(187=0.308,p<0.01). Also between parenting style and examination malpractices, a significant negative relationship was found (r(187)=-0.146,p< .05). A significant negative relationship also existed between religiousity and examination malpractices (r(187)=-0.028,p<0.01). The ANOVA confirmed the influence of parenting style on the attitude of students toward examination malpractices (F(1,186)=2.431,p<0.05). It also confirmed that high religious students did not engage in examination malpractice F(1,186)=10.517,p<0.01). But there was no joint significant influence of the three independent variables on the dependent variable (F (1,186) =0.761, p>0.05).


Examination malpractices, which is perennial problem in our education system is of interest to educators, researchers and the general public alike. This interest stems from the fact that academic integrity is a desirable characteristic which students and the entire populace should strive to emulate. Some research work that had been done reported the motives that gave rise to the behaviour but this study tries to look at the impact of style of parenting, the gender of person involved and the influence of religiousity on the attitude of students towards examination malpractices.

Evidences abound of increasing incidents of examination malpractices by students at schools and colleges; which conflict with the core purpose of education; that is, the training of the mind and character for the acquisition of practical and theoretical skills, knowledge and functional ideas for development and the search for truth and knowledge, the creation and communication of ideas.

In Nigeria, the first publicly reported cases of examination malpractices occurred in 1914 when there was leakage of question papers in the Senior Cambridge Local Examination. Ever since, there have been cases of irregularities reported on a yearly basis (West African Examination Council, 2004). The major forms of malpractices reported are: impersonation, bringing in foreign materials (books, calculator and texting messages on mobile phones); substituting worked scripts, stealing, collusion in the examination hall (copying one another), mass/ organized cheating involving assistances from teachers /lecturers and outsiders, and insult/ assault on invigilators (Oluyeba and Daramola, 2000). This trend of examination malpractices is inimical to academic development and advancement which needs to be drastically addressed.

The vanguard Newspaper, March 4, 2004 defines examination malpractices as any act of omission or commission which compromises the reliability of any assessment or evaluation system. Ikupa, (1997) also defines it as an illegal or unethical behavior by somebody in the process of testing an examinee's ability or knowledge by means of question.

Examination malpractices as a form of corruption and corrupt practices have crept into the fabric of all levels of the educational sector in the country. Various attempts have been made by expert to define it from various perspectives but for this research, it will be define as a "corrupt practice". Examination malpractices as a form of corruption may mean actions that are not permitted by the examining bodies, yet people indulge in them, in order to make them pass the examination. …

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