Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

Description of Primary Education 1st Grade Students' Forms of Holding a Pencil as Well as Their Grip and Compression Strengths

Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

Description of Primary Education 1st Grade Students' Forms of Holding a Pencil as Well as Their Grip and Compression Strengths

Article excerpt


This study aimed to examine how first grade students in primary education held and gripped a pencil and their compressive strength using a descriptive research method. The participants of the research comprises first grade students attending a private school in the city center of Ankara (n=79). All of the four different sections in this private school were included in the research. In terms of the variable of holding the pencil, the following results were obtained with regard to the first grade students: Ratio of students keeping their index fingers below the 90°angle is more than half of the students participating in the research, 60% of the students positioned their forearms outward up to an angle of 45°, 80% of the students grasped the pencil with thumb and index finger, 63% of the students positioned their thumbs on the pencil, while half of the students grasped the pencil from the mid-point, 38.5 % of the students grasped it from the upper point, the Grip and compressive strengths of the first grade students were also determined in the study. Accordingly, the grip strengths of first grade students were in the range of 4-16.10 (kg) and grip strength varies by gender in favor of the males. One of the findings obtained in the study is that writing speed varies by gender. Accordingly, females write faster than males.

Key Words

Grip and Compressive Strengths, Writing and Holding Pen.

It can be said that if a human being is capable of transferring his feelings, thoughts, wishes, and designs onto paper or screen, this success is thanks to the pictogram that emerged thousands of years ago (Temur, 2009). The process of expressing oneself started with pictogram, continued with phonograms, and finally turning into the ideogram. People started to use writing system thanks to the invention of the alphabet (Akit, 1981; Donoughue, 2009). Although there is no definite information regarding how writing was invented, however, cuneiform script, Egyptian hieroglyphics, the first Phoenician alphabet, and invention of the printing press can be seen as cornerstones in the history of writing.

Thanks to writing, people had the opportunity to record the important events they experienced, to store and protect the information, and this led the way to establishing communication with other people (Donoughue, 2009). In this way, writing became a part of communication skills and over time came to be part of educational activities. One of the elements influencing the effectiveness of the writing training process is previous experience. While some primary students have gained important experience regarding reading and writing (sound awareness, writing consciousness), others may not have had this experience. These experiences before starting school influence the readiness for reading and writing.

Readiness is particularly important for writing activities. In addition to being at a certain level mentally, students should also have made an adequate psychomotor progress. Harrison (1976) emphasized that the readiness of students, especially those with learning difficulties consists of the following aspects which are required in learning to write:

Visual Perception: This is the capability to recognize objects, pictures and pieces of a whole.

Visual Spatial Relationships: Visual spatial relationships are related to size, height, similarity, and difference of objects as well as their relationships with other objects.

Visual-motor Skills: Visual motor skill refers to the ability to transfer spatial relationships recognized in the objects onto the paper.

Hand Eye Coordination: This is the skill of copying or drawing a figure or object seen.

Recall: This is the skill of recording previous perceptions in the long-term memory and accessing this information again when necessary (Özerk, Handorff, & Özerk, 2011).

The teaching process is as important as readiness in teaching of writing. …

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