Academic journal article Academy of Marketing Studies Journal

Developing a Multi-Item Measurement Scale for Developing Teenagers' Involvement in Reality Television

Academic journal article Academy of Marketing Studies Journal

Developing a Multi-Item Measurement Scale for Developing Teenagers' Involvement in Reality Television

Article excerpt

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper is to develop and confirm a multi-item measurement scale for developing teenagers' involvement in Reality Television. Understanding involvement of teenagers' in RTV so that its role in their consumption behavior can be better understood in important for further theory building in the consumer behavior field. Various researchers have proposed liking, time spent on watching, level of attention provided and audience desire to attend as the domain items for teenagers' media involvement. Using a multi-step process, this research refined and adapted a nine item measurement scale for developing country teenagers' RTV involvement. These were then tested and confirmed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses techniques.

INTRODUCTION

Teenagers worldwide are an emerging market segment that is receiving increasing attention from researchers (Bhosale & Gupta, 2006; Lueg & Finney, 2007). Specifically, as a consumer socialisation agent; electronic media receives maximum attention (Dotson & Hyatt, 2005; Vakratsas & Ambler, 1999). Reality Television (RTV) is a contemporary electronic media vehicle. The idea of RTV originated from documentary TV programs and the growth of RTV is still in its early stage (Biressi, 2005; Deziel, 2004; Hill, 2005). Still, RTV has generated a lot of interest among teenagers because of its interesting content (Lundy & Jacobson, 2008). Furthermore, the nature of participants (Jacobs, 2008), format (James, 2007), and reward system (Driscoll, 2007), makes RTV different and exclusive from other TV programs. Understanding the involvement of teenagers' in RTV so that its role in their consumption behaviour in a developing country can be understood is critical for further theory building in the field. It is particularly important due to the huge size of the teenaged market segment and impressive growth of electronic media in developing countries (Bhosale & Gupta, 2006; Quraishi, Bhuiya & Mohammad, 2004). Further, theory building in this area is also important in developing countries, where the population is relatively young. Accordingly, the key problem this research will address is:

How to measure developing country teenagers' involvement with reality television (RTV)?

INVOLVEMENT WITH MEDIA

In media research, involvement pertains to media users' relationships with the message conveyed by media, media personalities, or other media users (Rubin & Step, 1997). To understand involvement, one needs to understand the authence and the role of involvement between media motive and media effects (Perse, 1998). Lin (1993) explained that authence activity is a construct describing authence's involvement when using the media. Activity is mostly manifested in people's media motives, selectivity, and involvement with the message provided by media (Blumer, 1979). Levy and Windhal (1984) focused on three types of activity: a) selective before exposure, b) involvement during exposure, c) and use after exposure. Several researchers have investigated relationships between media motives, involvement, and effects. Perse (1990) found that instrumental viewing motivation positively related to elaboration, whereas ritualistic viewing motivation positively related to engaging in distracting behaviour. Perse (1998) also found instrumental motivation predicted cognitive and affective involvement (e.g., positive reactions) with television viewing.

Involvement with RTV

The idea of RTV originated from documentary TV programs and the growth of RTV is still in its early stage (Biressi, 2005; Deziel, 2004; Hill, 2005) and not much academic research has been done on it or its effects. On theoretical grounds, cultivation theory suggests that frequent TV viewing increases the likelihood of the adoption of expressed values and beliefs that will ultimately alter teenagers' actual behaviour (Gruber & Thau, 2003). Moreover, intensive TV viewing brings greater changes in values, beliefs, and resulting behaviour. …

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