The aim of this work is to examine the pentafactorial validity of the AF5 Self-Concept Questionnaire in Spanish and Chilean young adults. From the responses of a total of 4,383 young adults aged 17 to 22 years (1,918 Spanish, 44%, and 2,465 Chilean, 56%) it was analyzed the reliability of the instrument, the compared validity of the 5 oblique factor model proposed by the authors versus the unifactorial and the orthogonal alternative models, and was studied the invariance of one Chilean sample. The results of confirmatory factor analyses supported the authors' pentafactorial model. The multi-group factorial invariance showed that Chilean sample of the AF5 does not change neither the Spanish factor weights, nor the variances and covariances of the factors, or the error variances of items. Finally, the internal consistency of the five scales was good in the samples of both countries.
Keywords: self-concept, confirmatory factor analysis, young adults, Spain, Chile.
El objetivo de este trabajo es examinar la validez pentafactorial del cuestionario de Autoconcepto Forma 5 (AF5) con jóvenes españoles y chilenos. A partir de las respuestas de un total de 4.383 adultos jóvenes de 17 a 22 años (1.918 españoles, 44%, y 2.465 chilenos, 56%) se analiza la fiabilidad del cuestionario, se compara la validez del modelo de cinco factores oblicuos que proponen los autores versus los modelos alternativos unifactorial y ortogonal, y se estudia la invarianza de la estructura factorial entre la muestra española y la chilena. Los resultados de los análisis factoriales confirmatorios ratifican la validez del modelo teórico pentafactorial de los autores. El estudio de la invarianza factorial multigrupo indica que la muestra chilena no varía en los pesos factoriales respecto de la española, ni tampoco las varianzas y covarianzas de los factores o la varianza de error de los ítems. Finalmente, la consistencia interna de las cinco escalas fue aceptable en los dos países.
Palabras clave: autoconcepto, análisis factorial confirmatorio, jóvenes adultos, España, Chile.
The AF5 Self-Concept Questionnaire (AF5, Garcia & Musitu, 1999) is a 30-question test for measures five major domains of self-concept. Each one of AF5 domains is measured with 6 specific items using a 1-to-99 point scale. The AF5 was developed primarily in Spain and was normed separately by sex and age groups with a large sample of 6,500 Spanish subjects between the ages of 10 and 62. Butler and Gasson (2005, pp. 196-197) noted that Self- Concept/Self-Esteem scales have tended to be normed on geographically limited samples, with potential problems in generalizability. For example, the Rosemberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES, Rosenberg, 1965) was normed sampled from only one State, and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI, Coopersmith, 1967) was normed sampled from only a University of the North of Carolina. In Spanish-speaking countries, the AF5 is one of the most widely used scales for the measure multidimensional of self-concept (e. g., Jimenez, Musitu, Ramos, & Murgui, 2009; Oliden, 2008; Pereda & Forns, 2004). The AF5 questionnaire was derived from previous AFA Self-Concept Questionnaire (AFA, Musitu, Garcia, & Gutierrez, 1991) with three major improvements: first, a 99-point large scale of response to discriminate between the self-concept scores high; second, a measure for the physical dimension of self-concept; and third, a well-defined five-factor structure where each dimension was measured with only 6 specific elements.
The academic/professional dimension refers to the perception that the subject has of the quality of their role performance as student (or worker). The dimension refers to two stages, the academic and professional, which represent different chronological periods from the contexts of work. The Social dimension refers to the perception that the subject has of his performance in social relations, their social network and the ease or difficulty to maintain and expand his social network, and also some important qualities in interpersonal relationships (friendly and cheerful). …