Personality Patterns of Suicide Attempters: Gender Differences in Ukraine

Article excerpt

In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate the complete 'pattern' of a suicide attempter (SA) within the set of Big Five traits. Two models were used: M1, which includes the five main dimensions of Big Five in the analysis; and M2, which includes facets of those dimensions which were identified as important in M1. The study consisted of a group of SA (men - 326, women - 299) and a group of healthy volunteers (HV) (men - 143, women - 190) with a similar age range. Discriminant analysis (DA) showed that the factors most significant in discriminating the personality pattern of a male SA are (in decreasing order): (E) Extraversion, (N) Neuroticism, (C) Conscientiousness and (O) Openness; and for a female SA these factors were (E) Extraversion, (C) Conscientiousness and (A) Agreeableness. In M2 for men, the largest contribution to pattern recognition is (N3) Depression. Moreover, in M2 for men significant characteristics were (in descending order): (E6) Positive Emotions, (O1) Fantasy, (E4) Activity, and also (N2) Angry Hostility, (C3) Dutifulness, (C4) Achievement Striving, (C2) Order and (O6) Values; and for women: (E4) Activity, (C6) Deliberation, (C2) Order, (A6) Tender-Mindedness, (E5) Excitement Seeking, (E6) Positive Emotions, (C4) Achievement Striving, (A2) Straightforwardness, (C5) Self-Discipline and (E1) Warmth. Analysis of the obtained data demonstrates that suicide attempts amongst males, can largely be associated with personality variables reflecting negative emotions; while female suicide attempts are primarily associated with variables regarding activity and self-regulation.

Keywords: suicide, personality traits, Big Five, gender differences, discriminant analysis.

En este estudio, se ha intentado investigar el patrón completo de un suicida potencial (SP) dentro de los rasgos del modelo Big Five. Se usaron dos modelos: M1 que incluía las cinco dimensiones del modelo en el análisis; y M2, que incluía aspectos de aquéllas dimensiones consideradas relevantes en M1. El estudio estaba compuesto por un grupo de SP (326 hombres y 299 mujeres) y un grupo de voluntarios sanos (143 hombres y 190 mujeres) con un rango de edad similar. El análisis discriminante, mostró que los factores más significativos en la discriminación de los patrones de personalidad de un hombre (SP) eran (en orden decreciente): (E) Extraversión; (N) Neuroticismo; (C) Conciencia; y (O) franqueza; y para una mujer (SP): (E) Extraversión; (C) Conciencia; y (A) Agradabilidad. En M2 para hombres, la mayor contribución al patrón de reconocimiento fue (N3) Depresión. Es más, en M2 para hombres las características significativas fueron (en orden descendiente): (E6) Emociones positivas; (O) Fantasía; (E4) Actividad; y también (N2) Enfado-hostilidad; (C3) Obediencia; (C4) Consecución de logro; (C2) Orden; y (O6) Valores; y para mujeres (E4) Actividad; (C6) Deliberación; (C2) Orden; (A6) Ingenuidad; (E5) Búsqueda de sensaciones; E6) Emociones positivas; (C4) Consecución de logro; (A2) Franqueza; (C5) Autodisciplina y (E1) Calidez. El análisis de los datos obtenidos demuestra que el intento de suicidio entre hombres puede, perfectamente, asociarse con variables de personalidad que reflejan emociones negativas; mientras que las mujeres que intentan suicidarse suelen asociarse con variables referidas a la actividad y la auto-regulación.

Palabras clave: suicidio, rasgos de personalidad, Big Five, diferencias de género, análisis discriminante.

Suicidal behavior is an important socio-psychological problem, but there is insufficient research regarding the contribution of certain personal characteristics to suicidal actions. Sigmund Freud (1917) in his theoretical constructions concerning suicide gave much importance to personality intrapsychic factors. Farber's (1968) psycho-cultural theory also considered intra-psychic suicidal prerequisites, for example, 'vulnerability'. Allport (1966) defined a personality trait as 'a general striving for action' conditioning the relatively constant peculiarities of our behavior. …


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