Academic journal article The Spanish Journal of Psychology

Objective Assessment of Gender Roles: Gender Roles Test (GRT-36)

Academic journal article The Spanish Journal of Psychology

Objective Assessment of Gender Roles: Gender Roles Test (GRT-36)

Article excerpt

This study was designed to develop a computerized test to assess gender roles. This test is presented as a decision-making task to mask its purpose. Each item displays a picture representing an activity and a brief sentence that describes it. Participants have to choose the most suitable sex to perform each activity: man or woman. The test (Gender Roles Test, GRT-36) consists of 36 items/activities. The program registers both the choices made and their response times (RTs). Responses are considered as stereotyped when the chosen sex fits stereotyped roles and non-stereotyped when the chosen sex does not fit stereotyped roles. Individual means (RTs) were computed for stereotyped and non-stereotyped responses, differentiating between domestic and work spheres. A "D" score, reflecting the strength of association between activities and sex, was calculated for each sphere and sex. The study incorporated 78 participants (69% women and 31% men) ranging from 19 to 59 years old. The results show that: (a) reading speed does not explain the variability in the RTs; (b) RTs show good internal consistency; (c) RTs are shorter for stereotyped than for neutral stimuli; (d) RTs are shorter for stereotyped than for non-stereotyped responses. Intended goals are supported by obtained results. Scores provided by the task facilitate both group and individual detailed analysis of gender role, differentiating the gender role assigned to men from that assigned to women, at the domestic and work spheres. Obtained data fall within the scope of the genderology and their implications are discussed.

Keywords: gender roles, objective test, masculinity, femininity, genderology.

El objetivo del estudio ha sido elaborar un test informatizado, para valorar los roles de género, presentado como tarea de toma de decisiones para enmascarar su objetivo. En cada ítem hay que elegir entre varones o mujeres, según se los/as considere más idóneos para realizar cada actividad. La prueba consta de 36 ítems/actividades. El programa registra tanto la elección como el tiempo de respuesta (TR). Las respuestas se clasifican en estereotipadas (concordancia sexo y rol estereotipado) y no estereotipadas (discordancia sexo y rol estereotipado). Para cada uno de estos grupos se calcula el TR medio, diferenciando ámbito doméstico y laboral. También se calcula una puntuación de fuerza de asociación de la respuesta (D) para cada ámbito y sexo. En el estudio participaron 78 personas (69% mujeres y 31% varones) entre 19 y 59 años. Los resultados manifiestan que: (a) la velocidad de lectura no explica la variabilidad en los TR; (b) los TR muestran buena consistencia interna; (c) los TR son más breves ante estímulos estereotipados que neutros; (d) los TR son más breves para las respuestas estereotipadas que para las no estereotipadas. Los resultados avalan el ajuste del test a los objetivos establecidos. Las puntuaciones facilitan tanto el análisis del rol de género en grupos como el perfil individual, diferenciando el rol de género adscrito a la mujer del adscrito al varón, tanto en el ámbito doméstico como en el laboral. Estos resultados se enmarcan dentro del ámbito de la generología y se discuten sus implicaciones.

Palabras clave: roles de género, prueba objetiva, masculinidad, feminidad, generología.

Throughout the first half of the 20th century, the terms "masculinity" (M) and "femininity" (F), in Psychology, included different components -personality dimensions, vocational interests, amongst others- (Fernández, 1983). Even though no explicit theory guided the development of the various M/F scales, some basics assumptions were taken for granted from the beginning. Perhaps the most determinant one was to suppose that given that male and female were mutually opposed (if you belong to one sex it is impossible to belong to the other), then masculinity and feminity opposed each other. For this reason, only one scale was thought to be necessary, as this scale situated each individual perfectly within a single continuum. …

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