Academic journal article International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology

Neuropsychological Analysis of the Difficulties in Dyslexia through Sensory Fusion1

Academic journal article International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology

Neuropsychological Analysis of the Difficulties in Dyslexia through Sensory Fusion1

Article excerpt

ABSTRACT. The aim of this ex post facto study was to describe differences in errors of reading mechanics (corrections, substitutions, rotations, omissions, repetitions, hesitations and additions), reading processes (visual and phonological), ocular motility errors (tracking and saccades), and selective attention in two groups of children with dyslexia or reading delay. By means of an ex post facto design, we compared the two groups, one with altered sensory fusion measured by the optical Worth test (n = 76 students, and the other without altered sensory fusion (n = 123). Results showed that dyslexic students with impaired sensory fusion had more problems in reading mechanics and significantly in inversion errors. However, few differences were found in reading processes, selective attention, and ocular motility, without differences among the groups analyzed. In short, the diagnosis of dyslexia may be affected by alternative measures that should be examined and that would influence the approach to preventive and specialized intervention of dyslexia.

KEYWORDS. Learning disabilities. Reading. Sensory fusion. Attention. Ex post facto study.

RESUMEN. El objetivo de este estudio fue ex post facto describir las diferencias en errores de la mecánica de la lectura (rectificaciones, sustituciones, rotaciones, omisiones, repeticiones, vacilaciones y adiciones) y en los procesos lectores (visual y fonológica) por un lado, y errores de motilidad ocular (seguimiento y sacádico) y atención selectiva por otro, en una muestra de dos grupos de niños con retraso lector o dislexia. Mediante un diseño ex post facto se compararon esos dos grupos, uno con fusión sensorial alterada medida a través de la prueba óptica del Worth, compuesto por 76 alumnos (34 niños y 42 niñas), y un grupo sin fusión sensorial alterada formado por 123 alumnos (59 niños y 64 niñas). Se ha comprobado que los alumnos disléxicos con fusión sensorial alterada tuvieron mayores problemas en la mecánica de la lectura y de forma significativa en las inversiones. Sin embargo, se encontraron escasas diferencias en relación a los procesos lectores, la atención selectiva y la motilidad ocular, no diferenciándose los grupos analizados. En definitiva, parece que el diagnóstico de la dislexia pueda estar afectado por medidas alternativas que sería necesario contrastar, que influirían en la forma de enfocar la labor preventiva y de intervención especializada del problema.

PALABRAS CLAVE. Dificultades de aprendizaje. Lectura. Fusión sensorial. Atención. Estudio ex post facto.

Dyslexia is classified as a specific learning disability and defined as a neurological deficit that provokes unexpected difficulties in the development of reading, with a 5-10% prevalence in the population school (American Psychiatric Association, 2000; Nicolson, Fawcett, Brookes, and Needle, 2010). The prevalence of these reading difficulties (hereafter, RD) is usually higher in men than in women, both in studies based on specific samples of RD diagnoses, and in those based on general samples to be subsequently identified. Moreover, the proportion of men to women is higher in samples of subjects with greater reading problems. These reading difficulties are frequently displayed during and after the process of reading acquisition, and are considered evolutional or developmental dyslexia, which is different from acquired dyslexia, which affects subjects who, after completing the process of reading acquisition, for various reasons, cease to read (Hawke, Olson, Willcut, Wadsworth, and DeFries, 2009).

Reading is a complex process in which diverse associated variables confer. Some of them involve the capacity of discrimination, conditioned both by visual skills of control and stimulus recognition. Moreover, with the double controversy of the concept of the reading process on the one hand and, on the other, of more recent conceptualizations of learning difficulties or dyslexia-from diverse approaches and perspectives-which consider dyslexia a complex disorder with a multifactor genesis, which takes on diverse forms (Ziegler et al. …

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