Academic journal article Asian Social Science

The Exploring Nature of the Assessment Instrument of Five Factors of Personality Traits in the Current Studies of Personality

Academic journal article Asian Social Science

The Exploring Nature of the Assessment Instrument of Five Factors of Personality Traits in the Current Studies of Personality

Article excerpt


The idea which includes the five dimensions of personality has strong dominant in the field of personality studies. In this way, it has enjoyed wide spread popularity in applied organizational context. Although five factors were found in various studies, but its structure has not been accepted generally. The present study aims to explore the current studies regarding nature of five dimensions of personality, its application, its limitations, and the other related characteristics in order to revalue it. The current study confirms the suggested structure of such traits for the study of personality.

Keywords: Personality, Five factors personality, Five factors inventory, Big five factors, Big five personality, Five-factor model, NEO-five factor inventory, NEO-PI-R

1. Introduction

The concept of personality has a long history, and since 2000 years back personality was researched by many scientists like Cicero and Hippocrates. During its history, it has received considerable attention in the literature up to date as various empirical and theoretical studies.

Generally, high progress has been made toward a consensus on personality structure (Costa & McCare, 1992; John, 1990; McCare & John, 1992). It has been conceptualized at different levels of breadth (McAdams, 1992), and each of these levels include our understanding of individual understanding. Moreover, individuals are characterized by a unique pattern of traits. In such case, according to cook (2008), to understand scientifically, it must be interesting in personality.

Psychologically, it is a truism that people are different in many fundamental ways. In such case, there are many variables affect personality such as genetic and environmental factors (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1985), sex differences (Budaev, 1999; Costa & McCare, 1992), Culture (Markus & Kitayama, 1998), and ethnicity (Griffiths, 1991).

Such variables are studied in relationship with personality as topics in different fields such as sociology and anthropology. Such study of variables cause to appear as both theoretical and applied results that even can be as valuable applied theories. For instance, individuals who have same ethnic origin, they may have certain personality characteristics that varied from the other ethnic organs (Griffiths, 1991).

2. Rievew of Literature

A large number of researchers attempted to develop definitions for personality, but since natural taxonomies typically have fuzzy definition (Rosch, 1978), and the abstract nature of the concepts in psychology due to some difficulty in defining them empirically (Brown, 2001), there is not a universal definition for the concept of personality. However, there are some dominant definitions in the related literature which are somewhat more agreeable compare the other definitions which are suggested.

There has not been unanimous consensus on definitions of personality traits; the same can be said for their classification. Such lack of unanimous consensus is resulted from many reasons. Moreover, the evaluation of such taxonomies can affect the process of research on personality traits.

There are many taxonomies of personality traits are suggested in the field of psychology during the history of psychology. The most widely accepted taxonomies are presented as questionnaires (tests) of personality traits. Such questionnaires are used as instruments in order to assess personality of individuals.

There are four most dominant questionnaires of assessment of personality which are designed based on four dominant suggested taxonomies. Firstly, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is based on the work of Carl Jung, was developed by Isabel Myers and Katharine Cook Briggs. MBTI has been used by researchers more than 60 years (Myers & Myers, 2009). Moreover, there is claim that it is the most widely used instrument around the world (Myers, McCauuley, Quenk & Hammer, 1998). …

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