Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

A Scale of Mobbing Impacts

Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

A Scale of Mobbing Impacts

Article excerpt


The aim of this research was to develop the Mobbing Impacts Scale and to examine its validity and reliability analyses. The sample of study consisted of 509 teachers from Sakarya. In this study construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliabilities and item analysis of the scale were examined. As a result of factor analysis for construct validity three factors emerged which named organizational behavior, individual effect, and learned resourcefulness consisting of 29 items which accounted for the 57 % of the total variance. The internal consistency reliability coefficients were .92 for organizational behavior, .83 for individual effect, and .63 for learned resourcefulness. The findings also demonstrated that item-total correlations ranged from .32 to .92. Test-retest reliability coefficients were .53 and .89 for three subscales, respectively. According to these findings the Mobbing Impact Scale can be named as a valid and reliable instrument that could be used in the field of organization.

Key Words

Mobbing's Effects, Validity, Reliability.

The concept of mobbing was used to define the behaviors of animals frightening away a thread or a hunting enemy in 1960s (Lorenz, 2008). For instance, Lorenz observed that a goose cannot attack a fox on its own, but in case a lot of geese come together to join their forces, they can frighten away and even injure a fox (Dökmen, 2008) . On the other hand, the concept of mobbing was used to define the aggressive behaviors of the groups of little children towards an alone and weak child (Tinaz, 2006). A lot of researches have been conducted in many countries such as Ireland, Sweden, Finland, Austria, Hungary, Italy and France with the help of Leymann's studies (Çobanoglu, 2005).

Victims are exposed to systematic humiliation and their personal rights are held during the mobbing process. There are some immoral and hostile behaviors towards the victim and it is expected mobbing occur quite often (at least once a week) or in long term (at least six months) (Leymann & Gustafsson, 1996). Mobbing, at the same time, is the misusage of power. Tyran, most probably, enjoys the troubles and the weakness of emotions of the victim (The Harvard Mental Health Letter, 2001). On the other hand, mobbing is the aggressive behaviors that are not reflected explicitly such as abuse (Fineman, Sims, & Gabriel, 2005).

In addition to the general researches about mobbing (Casimir, 2002; Field, 1996; Lewis & Orford, 2005; Mikkelsen, 2004; Namie & Namie, 2003; Yaman 2007, 2008; Zapf & Einarsen, 2001), researches have been conducted in the fields of the psychological effects of mobbing (DiMartino, 2003; Leymann & Gustaffson, 1996; Lynch & O'Moore, 2004; Mikkelsen & Einarsen, 2002), its reasons (Einarsen, 1999; Einarsen, Raknes, & Matthiesen, 1994; Eriksen & Einarsen, 2004; Hoel, 2004; Sheehan, Barker, & Rayner, 1999; Zapf, 1999). Moreover, according to Leymann, 15% of the suicides are directly related with mobbing in working places in Sweden. This indicates how important the concept of mobbing is.

As a concept "Mobbing" is defined as emotional assaults, subjected to an employee working in an organization, and done for different reasons, by the superior(s)/colleague(s) or subordinate(s). After all, in the studies of mobbing, it is seen that although the contents are the same, different concepts are interchangeably used. For example the terms "bullying/victimization, emotional abuse, maltreatment/mistreatment, harassment and abuse" are some of the concepts often used to define mobbing (Yaman, 2007, 2009).

When the researches in Turkey are taken into consideration (Bahçe, 2007; Dilman, 2007; Ertürk, 2005; Gökçe, 2006; Gücenmez, 2007; Günes, 2006; Isik, 2007; Kiliç, 2006; Yaman, 2007; Yavuz, 2007), it is seen that descriptive style researches are made depending on the basis of Leymann's typology.

According to modern management paradigms in order for employees to have happy work environment, get satisfaction from their work, able to work peacefully in the business environment, both for organizational behavior and quality of life and health is very important. …

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