The Paradigm Shift of Vocational Guidance and Career Counseling and Its Implications for Turkey: An Evaluation from Past to Future

Article excerpt

Abstract

The effect of globalization on the economic and social changes and the new paradigms of these changes which have caused vocational guidance and career counseling services are become increasingly world-wide sociopolitical instrument. To use this instrument by effectively and responsibly as individual and socially, it is required to understand correctly the new paradigms in this area. These services in the U.S. is started in early 1900s and developed according to structure and need of society. The Turkish counseling movement dates back to the 1950s and drives its roots largely from advances and development in the U.S system of vocational guidance. Three identifiable historical periods which are (i) Beginning period (1953-1975), (ii) Searching period (1976-1994), and (iii) Developing period (1995-2010), including, respectively, leading, indecisive, and systematic steps. At the last period because of the process of integration with the European Union, the route of these services turned from America to Europe. Although some important steps and initiatives, it is not expected to have effective and meaningful results unless reviewing and evaluating of paradigm shifts. The author discusses and evaluates of vocational guidance and career cunseling services in our country, in historical perspective, the changes created by globalization and new paradigms examining the current situation in light of the possible implications put forward in this area. It is estimated that the need of vocational guidance and career counseling services can be on the increase in the 21st century because of trends related to the globalization. The result of these trends, the perceptions and approaches in the field of vocational guidance and career counseling have rapidly changed in the last 10-15 years. The description of new paradigms with the causes and consequences that it can be functional for drawing the route of the search for solution is extremly important for the future.

Key Words

Vocational Guidance, Career Counseling, New Paradigms.

The effect of globalization on the economic and social changes and the new paradigms of these changes have resulted in the vocational guidance and career counseling services have increasingly become a world-wide sociopolitical instrument (European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training [CEDEFOP], 2008; Herr, 2003). The effective and responsible use of this instrument by individual and society requires the correct understanding of the new paradigms in this area. There are two further ways in which advanced technology and the worldwide dispersion of technological and scientific knowledge have made an impact on the laborcapital relationship in a world socio-economic system. These are the globalization of the workforce and a world global labor surplus (Herr, Cramer, & Niles, 2004, p. 11). Naturally, this situation has necessitated the development of national policies for balancing the needs of individuals and society in the field of vocational guidance and career counseling (Althanasou & Esbroeck, 2008).

The author reviews and evaluates of vocational guidance and career cunseling services in Turkey in its historical perspective, the changes created by globalization and new paradigms examining the current situation in light of the possible implications put forward in this area. This article also aims to provide readers with an overview of the current status of vocational guidance and career counseling in Turkey in order to enhance awareness of specific cultural, political, and economic factors have impacted career counseling and its delivery systems and how international perspectives have contributed to the profession.

It is predicted that the need of vocational guidance and career counseling services will increase in the 21st century because of trends related to the globalization. As a result of these trends, the perceptions, and approaches in the field of vocational guidance and career counseling have rapidly changed in the last 10-15 years. …

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