Academic journal article The South East Asian Journal of Management

The Role of HRM Practices in Predicting Faculty Turnover Intention: Empirical Evidence from Private Universities in Bangladesh

Academic journal article The South East Asian Journal of Management

The Role of HRM Practices in Predicting Faculty Turnover Intention: Empirical Evidence from Private Universities in Bangladesh

Article excerpt

Introduction

What determines employee turnover? How can it be managed? Or, what can be done to retain potential employees? Practically, answers to these questions are highly relevant to the individual who may be thinking about leaving the organization as well as the managers experiencing tremendous switching tendency among the employees. Realistically, employee turnover is a serious issue for many organizations; organizational experts view this phenomenon as a persistent problem for the organization (Yin-Fah et al., 2010). This is considered an acute problem due to its detrimental effects on the organization especially when the high performing employees leave the organization. Moreover, excessive turnover is dangerous for the organizations, and it undermines the efciency and productivity of the organization. Furthermore, in some occasions, it threats the organization's long term survival (Brereton, Beach, and Cliff, 2003). Therefore, retention of top performing employees has become a big challenge for the employers/organizational managers (Samuel and Chipunza, 2009; Ovadje, 2009). It is sad but true that employers have nothing much to do except the arrangement for hiring and training new employees once the employee has quit as argued by Dalessio, Silverman, and Schuck (1986).

Due to the complex nature of turnover phenomenon, the causes of turnover vary on the basis of context of research as well as the nature of the organizations. That is why the generalization of turnover research is questioned across the situation and population (Griffeth, Hom, and Gaertner, 2000). Therefore in spite of having more than 1500 academic researches on employee turnover, surprisingly it is still the vibrant eld of further research (Holtom et al., 2008). This is because of different countries have different reasons for employee turnover, and even the reasons are different within the same industry (Souza-poza and Henneberger, 2004). Most of the empirical studies on turnover were conducted in western context mainly in US, Canada, UK, and Australia (Ovadje, 2009; Maertz, Stevens, and Campion, 2003). The results of these studies may not be generalized to other contexts for instance Asian context in general, and in developing nation Bangladesh in particular. Thus, scholars still continue searching the answer of what determine employee turnover in different contexts as context is important to understand the turnover phenomenon (Chen and Francesco, 2000). In fact, Bangladesh is one of the least developed countries where 45 percent people live under poverty line, relatively limited educational levels with a 47.9 literacy rate, and a different culture (World Fact Book, 2008). Therefore, to understand turnover phenomenon in broader context, Holtom et al. (2008) called for a more international focus in turnover research. Moreover, considering the importance of ties in Asian cultures, researchers argued that the social nature of staying or leaving may be particularly salient features in Asian countries. Therefore, it is expected that a study of turnover in a least developed Asian context should provide additional insights into the turnover phenomenon. Thus, this paper is expected to enrich the current turnover literatures in the context of Bangladesh in particular and in Asian context in general.

Theoretically, it has been well accepted that human resource management practices generally reduce the turnover intention (Slattery and Selvarajan, 2005). Similarly, other scholars argued that employees are less likely to leave, rather stay longer with organizations when they perceive positive human resource practices such as job freedom, job security and better pay (Stewart and Brown, 2009). Thus, it can generally be hypothesized that positive human resource practices not only reducing turnover intentions; rather it can be used as employee retention strategy tool. Like many other managerial topics, there is a lack in research pertaining to turnover and HRM in developing countries despite calls to expand the international HR perspective (Baruch and Budhwar, 2006). …

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