Academic journal article The Spanish Journal of Psychology

Health and Safety at Work in the Transport Industry (TRANS-18): Factorial Structure, Reliability and Validity

Academic journal article The Spanish Journal of Psychology

Health and Safety at Work in the Transport Industry (TRANS-18): Factorial Structure, Reliability and Validity

Article excerpt

In this article, we study the psychometric properties of a short scale (TRANS-18) which was designed to detect safe behaviors (personal and vehicle-related) and psychophysiological disorders. 244 drivers participated in the study, including drivers of freight transport vehicles (regular, dangerous and special), cranes, and passenger transport (regular transport and chartered coaches), ambulances and taxis. After carrying out an exploratory factor analysis of the scale, the findings show a structure comprised of three factors related to psychophysiological disorders, and to both personal and vehicle-related safety behaviors. Furthermore, these three factors had adequate reliability and all three also showed validity with regard to burnout, fatigue and job tension. In short, this scale may be ideally suited for adequately identifying the safety behaviors and safety problems of transport drivers. Future research could use the TRANS-18 as a screening tool in combination with other instruments.

Keywords: safety behaviors, psychophysiological disorders, transport, scale, instrumental study.

En el presente artículo estudiamos las propiedades psicométricas de una escala breve (TRANS- 18) creada con el objetivo de detectar las conductas de seguridad (personales y en el vehículo) y los trastornos psicofisiológicos. Los participantes de la presente investigación son 244 conductores de vehículos de mercancías (comunes, peligrosas y especiales), grúas, pasajeros (línea regular y discrecional), ambulancias y taxis. Los resultados obtenidos constatan, después de realizar un análisis factorial exploratorio de la escala, una estructura constituida por tres factores que hacen referencia a los trastornos psicofisiológicos, a las conductas de seguridad tanto personales como de seguridad en el vehículo. Además, los tres factores obtenidos tienen una fiabilidad adecuada e igualmente se constatan indicios de validez de los tres factores si se toman como referencia el burnout, la fatiga y la tensión laboral. En suma, la presente escala puede resultar idónea para identificar de manera apropiada las conductas seguras y los trastornos que tienen los transportistas. Futuras investigaciones podrían utilizar el TRANS-18 como una herramienta de screening en combinación con otros instrumentos.

Palabras clave: conductas seguras, trastornos psicofisiológicos, transporte, escala, estudio instrumental.

The European Commission's new strategy for the period 2007-2012 aims to reduce the global occupational accident rate in the EU-27 by 25%. It states that improvements need to be made in employees' health and safety and that new hazards need to be identified, such as psychosocial hazards, in various sectors, i.e. public works, agriculture, fishing, social services and especially in transport (Eurostat, 2010; European Commission, 2007). In 2009, 8.9% of European employees suffered from health problems. The transport industry was the third most affected of the fifteen industries surveyed by the Eurostat Report (2009). Furthermore, this report shows that the most frequent health problems among these employees are different types of disorders, the most common of which are musculoskeletal and cardiovascular problems, stress, anxiety, depressions, addictions, fatigue and the side-effects of shift work changes.

In Spain, the Comisión Nacional de Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo (2007) in its guidelines for 2007-2012 says that employees in the transport industry present one of the highest prevalence rates of psychosocial hazards and unsafe behaviors.

The professional driver's role in the transport industry involves long working hours, handling merchandise (loading and unloading), selling tickets, observing passengers and providing information to passengers (Grösbrink & Mahr, 1998). The demands of this role, as well as the environment that drivers operate in, have been associated with a lack of health (Taylor & Dorn, 2006; Tse, Flin, & Mearns, 2006) and with problems created by this work (Tse, Flin, & Mearns, 2007). …

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