Academic journal article The Spanish Journal of Psychology

DSM-Oriented Scales of the Child Behavior Checklist and Youth Self-Report in Clinically Referred Spanish Children

Academic journal article The Spanish Journal of Psychology

DSM-Oriented Scales of the Child Behavior Checklist and Youth Self-Report in Clinically Referred Spanish Children

Article excerpt

The Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) is an example of the efforts to integrate categorical and dimensional assessment methods. The latest editions of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Youth Self-Report (YSR) included the DSM-Oriented Scales, constructed in rational manner based on the items making up these inventories. Objective: To analyze the psychometric properties of the DSM-Oriented Scales of the CBCL and YSR. Method: A clinical sample of 420 children and adolescents (aged 8-17 years) was assessed with the CBCL and YSR, with a structured diagnostic interview and with measures of functional impairment to study the reliability and validity of the DSM-Oriented Scales. Results: Internal consistency ranged from moderate to good for all the scales except the DSM-Anxiety Problems Scale. Agreement between parents and children ranged between moderate and low values. Kappa coefficients showed moderate agreement in the different symptoms. The DSM-Oriented Scales presented acceptable diagnostic power for DSM-IV disorders and a significant relationship with measures of functional impairment. Conclusion: The DSM-Oriented Scales constitute a useful approach from the dimensional model to the DSM-IV disorders in Spanish clinical population.

Keywords: DSM scales, psychopathology, taxonomy, CBCL, YSR.

El Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) es un ejemplo de los esfuerzos realizados para converger los métodos de evaluación categoriales y dimensionales. El Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) y el Youth Self-Report (YSR) han incluido en su última edición las Escalas DSM construidas de modo racional a partir de los ítems que forman parte de estos inventarios. Objetivo: analizar las propiedades psicométricas de las Escalas DSM de los cuestionarios CBCL y YSR. Método: se evaluó una muestra clínica de 420 niños y adolescentes (8-17 años) con los cuestionarios CBCL y YSR, con una entrevista diagnóstica estructurada y con medidas de deterioro funcional para estudiar la fiabilidad y validez de las Escalas DSM. Resultados: La consistencia interna osciló entre moderada y buena en todas las escalas, excepto en la Escala DSM-Pr. Ansiedad. El acuerdo entre padres e hijos fluctuó entre valores moderados y bajos. Los coeficientes Kappa mostraron una concordancia moderada en los diferentes síntomas. Las Escalas DSM presentaron un aceptable poder diagnóstico sobre los trastornos DSM-IV y una relación significativa con medidas de deterioro funcional. Conclusión: las Escalas DSM son una aproximación útil desde el modelo dimensional a los trastornos DSM-IV en población clínica española.

Palabras clave: escalas DSM, psicopatología, taxonomía, CBCL,YSR.

For around forty years now, two basic approaches have existed side by side in child and adolescent psychopathology: a) the medical-categorical model and b) the psychometricdimensional model. This duality has given rise to two different taxonomies: clinical syndromes, originating on the basis of hypotheses of covariation of symptoms observed in clinical practice (Wakefield, 1999), and empirical syndromes, resulting from the application of statistical techniques to different groups of symptoms (Achenbach, 1990).

Each of these diagnostic systems is linked to a specific assessment process. Categorical taxonomies require a qualitative assessment of mental disorders. Although classifications, such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994), provide details of all the criteria necessary for diagnosing a disorder, they do not specify how to assess the presence of symptoms and the impairment these can cause in the individual. In spite of this, the assessment strategy typically followed for obtaining categorical diagnoses is the interview (del Barrio, 1995; Kendall, Cantwell, & Kazdin, 1989). Inventories, questionnaires and scales are the assessment instruments employed from the psychometric model. …

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