Academic journal article Iranian Journal of Management Studies

The Relationship between Empowerment and Organizational Citizenship Behavior of the Pedagogical Organization Employees

Academic journal article Iranian Journal of Management Studies

The Relationship between Empowerment and Organizational Citizenship Behavior of the Pedagogical Organization Employees

Article excerpt

Introduction

Theories of management and organization began to develop in the early years of twentieth century. Initially, classical school of organization and management was recognized through hierarchy, the scope of monitoring, logical structure and labor division. The neoclassical school dealt with human relations movement. Finally, systemic and contingency school emerged in 1930s. Today, the latter is the dominating philosophy in management.

Classical school considered man as a machine that acted as a closed system and had to obey a set of rules and orders with no right to make decisions. In fact, freedom and authority had no meaning among employees. However, by the emergence of human relations movement, this attitude changed and managers gradually shared their authorities with employees and moved toward empowerment so that in 1990s they focused on team working. Managers paved the way for employees to release their potential forces in order to participate in the decision-making process. Human force empowerment was also recognized as employees' ability to participate in the process of making decisions. The empowered employees were able to learn and grow individually, to use communicational skills, to think systematically, to gain experience and to maintain work ethics. Empowered employees can change the organization to a learning one in such a way that it can increase its capabilities continuously and achieve its desired results.

Organizational citizenship behavior is a concept which organizations require to survive in the challenging and competitive environment of the contemporary age. If employees work in their own organization as good organizational citizens, they can both attract more customers to the organization in competition, and change it into an ambience full of trust and motivation.

Current period of human life is accompanied with marvelous transformations and developments. As a subset of human life, organizations must be ready to survive and grow facing such huge transformations and developments; otherwise, they would go out of business. By "readiness" we do not mean equipment and technological readiness; it rather means that organizations must prepare their staff as the main and valuable organizational capitals.

In such an ambience which is often defined by such terms as complexity, chaos, velocity and accelerated changes, employees should be flexible, self-command, entrepreneur, accountable, and seek invention and freedom of action. Organizational structures and managerial styles must change fundamentally in the manner that employees should contribute in decision-making process, working groups should be established, subordinates should be entrusted with more power and authority, and hierarchical structures should be replaced by network organizational structures .However, organizations are not able to develop effectively without individuals' voluntary propensity to cooperate. The difference between voluntarily cooperation and compulsory cooperation is very important. Compulsorily, the person performs his/her tasks in line with organizational plausible laws, rules and standards and only meets them. Voluntarily cooperation, however, is beyond the tasks and individuals express effort, energy and vision to actualize their own capabilities in the favor of the organization (Tore, 2006, p. 24).

Pedagogical organization (educational organization) is an organization which has a very important and sensitive mission. It needs employees with high voluntary and responsible performance to achieve its objectives in educating and training students.

The present study tries to answer the following questions:

1. Is there any relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and empowerment in Qom pedagogical organization employees?

2. Is there any relationship between empowerment components and organizational citizenship behavior in Qom pedagogical organization employees? …

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