Academic journal article Cognitie, Creier, Comportament

Adaptation and Validation of the Contingencies of Self-Worth Scale on a Romanian Student Sample

Academic journal article Cognitie, Creier, Comportament

Adaptation and Validation of the Contingencies of Self-Worth Scale on a Romanian Student Sample

Article excerpt

ABSTRACT

Individuals' self-esteem is not affected by all positive or negative outcomes, but only by the results in a specific domain that they consider important. According to the Contingencies Self-Worth Model (Crocker & Wolfe, 2001), one will invest effort in obtaining positive results only in areas that one considers relevant for self-evaluation. The present paper presents the adaptation and validation of the CSW Scale (Crocker et al., 2003) in a Romanian sample of college students (N = 543 students, 59% F). The validation of this instrument involves: (a) analysis of relations with Five-Factor Model of personality (NEO-FFI) and (b) analysis of relations with relevant behaviors (Self Reported Behaviors List). The results obtained through confirmatory factor analysis show that the CSW Scale has an acceptable configural invariance in the Romanian culture. All CSW Scale dimensions reached acceptable levels of internal consistency indices (above .70 for all factors). The correlations between the CSW Scale dimensions are statistically significant (at p<.05), supporting the idea of external and internal contingencies of self-worth. Except for Competitiveness, all CSW-S variables were associated in the expected direction with the validity criteria (both personality and relevant behaviors). Based on these findings, we can conclude that CSW-S has showed good validity in the Romanian student sample.

KEYWORDS: Contingencies Self-Worth, adaptation, personality, self-esteem

INTRODUCTION

For most of us, feeling good about ourselves is a generalized state we all perceive as natural and comforting. Most of the time, we experience this positive state without having to invest any cognitive or affective effort. This automated process is the result of an attribution bias that allows for a selective interpretation of reality in such a way that it creates a positive image about us (Mezulis, Abramson, Hyde ,& Hankin, 2004). In its most simple form, this self-serving attribution bias makes people to consider themselves responsible for positive events or outcomes (thus making an internal or dispositional attribution) and consider negative events as attributable to external causes (thus making an external attribution). Yet, the negative or positive nature of an event or outcome is not enough to affect one's selfesteem. According to the Contingencies of Self-Worth Model (CSW Model,Crocker & Wolfe, 2001), a self-worth changing event must occur in a particular area that is highly relevant for the individual, in order to influence his/hers self-esteem.

The CSW Model (Crocker & Wolfe, 2001) identifies seven main types of self-relevant information, and postulates that the subjective importance of each domain varies from person to person. The Contingencies of Self-Worth Scale (CSW-S, Crocker, Luhtanen, Cooper & Bouvrette, 2003) was introduced in the literature for assessing the variables described in the CSW Model. Since it was published, the CSW-S was found to be a valid instrument in various cultures: Japanese, Spanish, German, Dutch, French and Turkish (Self and Social Motivation Lab, 2011). The present paper presents the adaptation and validation of the CSW-S (Crocker et al., 2003) in a Romanian sample of college students.

The Contingencies of Self-Worth Model

In the last decade, researchers (Crocker & Wolfe, 2001; Crocker et al., 2003) identified several domains which individuals consider important for their selfworth, and which contribute to one's global self-esteem. This perspective starts from the assumption that individuals' self-evaluations are not influenced by all positive or negative information, but only by specific information. Crocker and Wolfe (2001, p.594) define contingencies of self-worth as "a domain or category of outcomes on which a person has staked his or her self-esteem, so that person's view of his or her value or worth depends on perceived successes or failures or adherence to self-standards in that domain". …

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