Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Rapid Urbanization as a Source of Social and Ecological Decay: A Case of Multan City, Pakistan

Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Rapid Urbanization as a Source of Social and Ecological Decay: A Case of Multan City, Pakistan

Article excerpt


This paper concentrates on the relationship between rapid urbanization and socio-ecological problems. The major objective of this study is to analyze the unplanned and haphazard urbanization that is giving birth to environmental issues such as; pollution, poor drainage system, poor quality of drinking water and poor hygienic conditions. This research carried out in Multan city, Pakistan through field survey of 200 respondents using multistage sampling technique. Self-administrated questionnaire was used as a tool of data collection and the binary logistic regression was employed for the analysis of the data. The results depict that urbanization is one of the major causes of converging joint family system to the nuclear family system and its changing function as a consequence. It is also a source of reduction of greenery and trees in the city. It is causing problem of poor sanitation system and quality of drinking water. Pollution is another outcome of haphazard and unplanned urbanization. The researcher also found that due to migration from rural to urban areas, the life in the city implicates adversely the quality of life. This study provides better insight on the problems of urbanization in urban areas and will also help policy makers to focus on major areas of improvement such as to check the migration from rural to urban. To enforce the urban laws to reduce the problems of sanitation, check on transport system, quality of drinking water, domestic and industrial waste. The researcher suggests the monitoring of the migration from rural to urban areas through provision of basic facilities in rural areas. On the other hand awareness campaigns and provision of basic facilities to the rural people (educational facilities, health facilities, food and empowerment in basic decision making) can reduce this problem.

Keywords: Urbanization, Social and ecological decay, Pollution, Water, Pakistan

1. Introduction

Urbanization and urban glide is the physical escalation of urban areas. Resultantly changes come in the urban areas that may be poverty, environmental degradation and poor quality of life. Urbanization is one of the serious global problems. As the development takes place from agricultural to an industrial sector, large scale urbanization takes place. During this process the growth rate of urban areas is typically double the pace of overall population increase. Some 29 percent of the world population was living in urban areas in 1950; this figure was 43 percent in 1990, and the estimated figure for the year 2030 is about 61 percent (Manzoor, M. et al., 2010).

History of urbanization in Pakistan can be divided into four phases in which both the in and out migration have occurred. The first phase of urbanization starts with the partition of British Indian Empire, when more than six million people migrated towards newborn country. Majority of them settled in Pakistan. Second phase started in the mid 1950s the government starts the process of industrialization. The opportunities of good life and employment encouraged million of the rural people migrate to cities. The third phase started with the breakup of East Pakistan in 1971. All the supporters of Pakistan in Bangladesh were forced to leave the country. The fourth but very complex and serious phases in 1980s, at this times changing in the neighboring countries, such as Iran and Afghanistan greatly added to already continuing process of urbanization in Pakistan. History of urbanization in Pakistan shows that the process of urbanization has remained continuous and ongoing phenomena and each decade has added something in it. Unusual growth of a few large cities is another aspect of Pakistan's urbanization. The city of Karachi alone contributes 21.7 % to the total urban population of Pakistan, while the city of Lahore contributes 12.7 percent. They along with the biggest seven cities including Faisalabad, Rawalpendi, Multan, Hyderabad, Gujranwala, Peshawar and Quetta contain 54. …

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