Academic journal article Pakistan Historical Society. Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society

Public Opinion in Pre-Modern Times: Muhammad Jauna Bin Tughluq: The Genesis of a Zalim Sultan

Academic journal article Pakistan Historical Society. Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society

Public Opinion in Pre-Modern Times: Muhammad Jauna Bin Tughluq: The Genesis of a Zalim Sultan

Article excerpt

PART II*

Ethnicity in the Reign of Muhammad bin Tughluq1

The known relatives and leading of amirs of the Sultan were as follows:

1 . Tughluq, Ghiyath al-Din, Ghazi Malik,2 muqti ' of Depalpur,3 later sultan, father.

2. Rajab, father's brother; father of the future na 'ib barbak, later sultan, Firuz Shah.

3. Bibi Na'ilah, Qadbâno, mother of Firuz Shah, wife of Rajab.4

4. Abu Bakr, father's brother.

5. Bahram Khan,5 son of Tughluq, one of Muhammad's umera possibly appointed to Lakhnauti on his accession.

6. Mahmud Khan, a prince, son of Tughluq, one of Muhammad's umera but was not prominent in affairs of state; may be the prince who died with his father, Tughluq.

7. Mubarak Khan, a prince, son of Tughluq, one of Muhammad's stepbrothers, he was given the post of mir dad in the qadis court; muqti ' of Dilmu.6

8. Nusrat Khan, a prince, son of Tughluq, one of Muhammad's umera but was not prominent in affairs of the state.

9. Mas 'Ud Khan, a prince, son of Tughluq from another wife, the daughter of 'Ala al-Din Khalji.7 He was awarded death penalty on a count of rebellion.*

10. Zafar Khan, a prince, son of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq,8 he may have died before the accession of Muhammad. According to Ibn Baftutah he was the one who died with his father under the pavilion; Zafar Khan may, however, be Mahmud Khan's title.

11. Tatar Khan a surrogate son of Tughluq, made ruler of Zafarabad by him. Later he was given Sunargaon when Lakhnauti was conquered by Tughluq; Muhammad does not seem to have changed the arrangement,9 may have been part of the force which was collected to crush the revolt of Bahram Aybah.

12. Malik Firuz bin Rajab, the future Sultan Firuz Shah, the Sultan's cousin.10 Barbak during Muhammad's reign and member of the triumvirate ruling Delhi during the entire time that the Sultan was on campaign against the sadah at the end of his rule.

13. Sadr al-Din Arsalan, stepbrother of Firuz Shah, possibly na'ib barbak before him.

14. Malik Qutb al-Din a stepbrother of Firuz Shah bin Rajab.

15. Baha' al-Din Gurshasp, Tughluq's sister's son, made 'ard-i mumalik and given the iqta' of Samana by Tughluq. Later, perhaps transferred to the Deccan, he rebelled in the reign of Muhammad in Gulbarga," may have had an Afghan father.

16. Malik Shadi, son in law of Ghâzi Malik and diván-i vizarat/ na'ib vazir of Gujerat under him, killed by rebels in Gujerat possibly just before Muhammad's accession.

17. A daughter married to Sartez.12

18. 'Imad al-Mulk Sartez Sultani, malik al-muluk, Qutb al-Mulk, was the son-in-law, Turkman ghulam of the Sultan and bakhshi of the army. He was made the vazir of Deogir after 'Ayn al-Mulk's revolt and had been muqti' of Multan [from 734-9 at least]. He was at Multan when Ibn Battutali arrived, Hud was punished, and the Mongal Tarmashirin arrived; he was given 70 lakh tankahs at one time.

19. A daughter married to Malik Yusuf, Dawar Malik.

20. Malik [Mawlana] Yusuf, Dawar Malik was also a son in law of the Sultan.

21. A daughter married to Malik A'zam Bayazid.

22. Malik Sharf al-Mulk Amir Bakht A'zam Bâyazîd, a son-inlaw of the Sultan ruled Manikpur during the time when Ibn Battutali was there. He was sent with a force of 4000 against the Afghans whom Muhammad subdued at Khambayat in 743.

23. A daughter married to 'Imad al-Din Simnâni.

24. 'Imad al-Din Simnâni a son in law of the Sultan.

25. Amir Bakht, Sharf al-Mulk, also a brother in law of the Sultan who was given the government of Chanderi perhaps after receipt of the Khalifah's investiture.13 He was the son of Syed Taj al-Din and brother of Qiwam al-Din Tirmidhi.

26. A sister married to the son of Syed Tirmidhi.

27. A step sister married to the son of Malik al-Hukama'.

28. Malik al-Hukama', a brother-in-law, perhaps an Afghan, married to the Sultan's stepsister [daughter of a wife of Tughluq from another marriage], in charge of Baluzara or Baroda. …

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