Academic journal article International Education Studies

Development and Validation of Faculty Members' Efficacy Inventory in Higher Education

Academic journal article International Education Studies

Development and Validation of Faculty Members' Efficacy Inventory in Higher Education

Article excerpt

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to provide an exploratory investigation of faculty member's efficacy inventory in higher education. Review of the literature showed a few studies about this subject and current instruments did not consider the theoritical foundations of faculty member efficacy. Moreover, most researches were limited to schools area and K-12. After an extensive review of the literature, first, a set of items to operationalize faculty perceptions and beliefs of efficacy in their tasks was developed. At second stage, higher education colleagues who were working in our university and other nearby universities examined the items for critique, and consulted with their colleagues about content and face validity. Third, a pilot study was initiated to map the domain of the construct and refined the measure and the meaning of faculty efficacy through the statistical methods. The instrument was field-tested and refined using a representative sample of universities faculty. Fourth, a factor analysis was utilized to identify factors related to efficacy scale of faculty members. Fifth, we reduced items and agreed about 18. Four factors were appeared in the factor analysis consisting of teaching competencies, research competencies, social competencies, and personal competencies. We insured all four sources of efficacy (mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, social persuasion, and emotional arousal) were represented in each efficacy components (teaching competencies, research competencies, social competencies and personal competencies). Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated for each factor and in overall the instrument was a reliable scale 0.83. Finally, differences between faculty members were studied based on some demographic variables such as gender and academic ranking. Results showed that there were not significant differences between all female and male faculty members efficacy and so based on academic ranking.

Keyword: Efficacy, Faculty members, Higher education, Inventory, Development and validation

1. Introduction

New progresses and extensive developments of world today have caused significant changes in social systems. Following these developments, education has also been subjected to extensive changes and has been especial attention to the universities. In fact, opening up new areas and expanding frontiers of knowledge, creativity, innovation and training of professionals has become a priority. Need for dynamic change and adaptation, quality growth has caused university officials' prime attention. As faculty members are factors affecting the quantitative and qualitative development of universities,therefore their perceptions, beliefs, behaviors and their working conditions and occupational environment can help achieve the research and educational objectives, and their personal development to be followed.On the other hand, "In a time when more and more students are coming to the university and concerns such as grade inflation, plagiarism , and academic dishonesty are becoming more salient, it seems pertinent that we begin to look at the motivations and beliefs of the professionals who guide the learning process at this level" (Fives and Looney, 2009, p.182). Of course "behavior in organizations is not simply a function of formal expectations and individual needs and motivation. The relationships among these elements are dynamic. Participants bring to the workplace a host of unique values, needs, goals, and beliefs. These individual characteristics mediate the rational aspects of organizational life. Moreover, a collective sense of identity emerges that transforms a simple aggregate of individuals into a distinctive workplace personality. This indigenous feel of the workplace has been analyzed and studied under a variety of labels, including organizational character, milieu, atmospher, ideology, climate, culture, emergent system and informal organization" (Hoye and Miskel, 2003, p. …

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