Academic journal article International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology

Spanish Adaptation and Validation of the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI)1

Academic journal article International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology

Spanish Adaptation and Validation of the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI)1

Article excerpt

ABSTRACT. In Spain there are no screening instruments specifically for young people that would facilitate the early detection of alcohol-related problems, which are a substantial problem of public health. The main goal of this study was to adapt the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI) to Spanish population, as well as to analyze its psychometric properties, reliability and predictive validity. The RAPI was applied at the same time to 569 students (aged 16-18), that had drunk alcohol in the last year, at nine randomly-selected schools in the Principality of Asturias (northern Spain). The factor structure, reliability and predictive validity of the instrument were analyzed. Validity was analyzed by studying the relation between the results obtained and patterns of use for alcohol and other substances, as well as with the psychopathological information provided by the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). The RAPI showed a unidimensional factor structure, high reliability (Cronbach's alpha = .87) and good capacity (sensitivity = 81.2%; specificity = 72.2%) for identifying problematic patterns of alcohol and other substance use and high levels of psychopathological distress. The Spanish version of the RAPI is reliable and valid for detecting alcohol-related problems in adolescents and young people.

KEYWORDS. Alcohol. Adolescents. RAPI. Screening. Instrumental study.

RESUMEN. No existen en España instrumentos de screening especialmente dirigidos a jóvenes que faciliten la detección precoz de los problemas asociados al consumo de alcohol, que son un grave problema de salud pública. El objetivo principal de este estudio ha sido adaptar el Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI) a la población española, así como analizar sus propiedades psicométricas, fiabilidad y validez predictiva. El RAPI fue aplicado a 569 estudiantes del Principado de Asturias de 16 a 18 años seleccionados al azar, que habían bebido alcohol en el último año. Se analizó la estructura factorial, fiabilidad y validez predictiva de la prueba. Para analizar la validez se estudió la relación entre los resultados de la prueba y los patrones de consumo de alcohol y otras sustancias, así como la psicopatología asociada de acuerdo con el Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). El RAPI mostró una estructura factorial unidimensional, una alta fiabilidad (alfa de Cronbach = 0,87) y una buena capacidad (sensibilidad = 81,2%; especificidad = 72,2%) para determinar patrones de consumo problemáticos de alcohol y otras drogas, así como un mayor malestar psicopatológico. La versión española del RAPI es fiable y válida para detectar los problemas derivados del consumo de alcohol en jóvenes y adolescentes.

PALABRAS CLAVE. Alcohol. Adolescentes. RAPI. Screening. Estudio instrumental.

The results of the National Survey on the use of drugs in secondary school students (Plan Nacional sobre Drogas, 2009) show that alcohol is the most widely used substance among Spanish young people. Among those aged 14 to 18, 81.2% have used alcohol at some time in their life, 72.9% have done so in the past year, and 58.5% have used it in the past month. In Europe, more than 90% of school students aged 15-16 have used alcohol in their lifetime, 13% have been drunk more than 20 times in their life and 18% have practiced binge-drinking (5 or more drinks in a single session) three times or more in the past month (Anderson and Baumberg, 2006).

Experimentation with alcohol and other drugs during adolescence is widespread and broadly accepted in today's society; indeed, it has become a normative behavior or a rite of passage to adulthood (Oliva, Parra, and Sánchez-Queija, 2008).The high levels of alcohol use in minors constitutes a considerable public health problem (Spoth, Greenberg, and Turrisi, 2008), especially if we take into account that a large percentage of young people display patterns of intensive drinking which surpass the threshold for risks to health (Cortés Tomás, Espejo Tort, Martín del Río, and Gómez Iñíguez, 2010; Salamó Avellaneda, Gras Pérez and Font-Mayolas, 2010). …

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