Academic journal article Journal of Sustainable Development

Design for End-of-Life Value Framework for Vehicles Design and Development Process

Academic journal article Journal of Sustainable Development

Design for End-of-Life Value Framework for Vehicles Design and Development Process

Article excerpt

Abstract

Nowadays, with growing public concern over environmental issues, companies are under pressure from government and society to reduce the impact of their activities. Based on that, in the early 1990's the European Union identified End-of-Life Vehicle (ELV) as a priority waste stream and a directive was introduced to protect the environment. Automotive companies are being pushed by environmental awareness and legislation to recycle, remanufacture and reuse the components at the end of life and also to reduce the quantity of manufacturing waste generated. Within this scenario, a design tool is needed for automotive design processes to fulfil the requirement of the European Union Directive on End-of-Life Vehicles. Besides that, the role of design in modern manufacturing is becoming even more important with companies adopting design tools as profit generating business elements especially for the automotive recycling or dismantling companies. Hence, this paper discusses a Design for End-of-Life (DFEL) Value framework for the vehicle design and development process. The framework described in this paper consists of 4 main steps: investigation of the current situation, Recycling Function Deployment (RFD) analysis for value and cost, characteristics selection and lastly decision for detail design. RFD is a new idea based on the concept of Quality Function Deployment (QFD). It is believed that the adoption of DFEL Value concept can help the designer to design the products to fulfil the end-of-life requirements. This paper concludes with a discussion and further direction for this research.

Keywords: Recycling function deployment, Value analysis, Vehicle design, Automotive recycling, EU directive on End-of Life-Vehicles

1. Introduction

Throughout the last two decades the demand for safety, quality and reduced prices for European cars created a decrease in the use of recyclable materials. This resulted in increasing amounts of End-of-Life Vehicles (ELV) components going to landfill. So in the early 1990's the European Union (EU) identified ELV as a priority waste stream and a directive was introduced. Furthermore, as it is move forward into 21st century, the automotive industry is turning its attention to the issues of environmental friendly vehicle in order to respond to the implementation of EU Directive on ELV.

The EU draft on ELV outlined that car manufacturers must reuse or recover 85% of ELV by 2006. At least 80% of that weight must be reused or recycled while up to 5% can be dealt with through other recovery operations such as incineration. This target increases to 95% by 2015 and at least 85% of that weight must be reused or recycled (Goodfellow, 2002; Afrinaldi et al., 2010).

The introduction of the directive will affect all players involved in the management of ELV in terms operational strategy, infrastructure and financial investment and the most important thing is a vehicle design and development process. The whole structure of automotive industries is expected to change with more focuses to designing in relation to recycling aspects. The traditional design process will become more advanced, as legislation demands the removal of all hazardous liquids and components. Some form of plastics, rubber and glass recovery is necessary, either during the dismantling phase or during the separation process. This is the big challenges to the vehicle designers.

In this scenario, a dedicated framework is needed for automotive design recyclability assessment to fulfil the requirement of EU Directive on ELV and at the same time to improve the design of the vehicle components in order to increase the value at end of life. The paper begins with a short description of literature in this area and follows this with a detailed explanation of the proposed framework. After that, the paper presents a case study in order to demonstrate and validate the proposed framework. Lastly, the results are discussed and conclusions drawn with recommendations for further research. …

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