Academic journal article American Journal of Entrepreneurship

Study on Entrepreneurial Environment Based on Cross Country Differences

Academic journal article American Journal of Entrepreneurship

Study on Entrepreneurial Environment Based on Cross Country Differences

Article excerpt

(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)

You were born to win, but to be a winner, you must plan to win, prepare to win, and expect to win. - Zig Ziglar


Hines (1973) sees entrepreneurship as a role model and bases his reasoning on the feet that entrepreneurs strive for greater realization and accomplishment in comparison to the role fostered by a non-entrepreneurial activity. Hence, the studies on students' entrepreneurial attitudes have been emerging as a result of a profound link between attitudes and intentions, on the one hand, and predicted behavior, on the other. This link demonstrates the creation of knowledge formed by institutional boundaries, their interconnected influence on behavior and influence on the changing institutional environment (North 1990; Hamilton 1919; Kogut et al. 2000).

In addition, studies of entrepreneurial attitudes among students have been viewed as an interesting topic due to an increase in the research performed on this subject by various authors like Luthje & Franke (2003), Wang & Wong (2004), Huffrnan & Quigley (2002) and Johnson et al. (2006). These studies test entrepreneurial attitudes against differing behavioral characteristics in order to elaborate on a model which would be used as a tool for predicting future behavior.

In this study, institutional environment is presented in the context of educational settings of various universities with different educational requirements and institutional backgrounds, where students' entrepreneurial attitudes are examined according to their perceived desirability and feasibility. Desirability is defined as a subjective norm regarding the perceived social pressure to perform or not to perform entrepreneurial behavior. Feasibility examines the perceived ease or difficulty of performing entrepreneurial behavior. Insight into these differences can enhance exploration of institutional goals, such as the promotion of entrepreneurship, which can be found in all national strategies.


This paper emerges from the previous studies which confirmed university students' increasing reluctance toward knowledge and development of characteristics regarding entrepreneurial ventures (Liles 1974; Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, 2001; Turker and Selcuk, 2008). Among the authors who modeled and examined the behavioral relationship between university students and the corresponding national setting are Turker & Selcuk (2008), Wu & Wu (2008), Wang & Wong (2004) , Menzies & Tatroff (2006), Verheul et al. (2004), Kourilsky & Walstad (1998), Zhang et al. (2009), Elenurm et al. (2007), Petridou et al. (2009), Mohd Shariff (2009), Linan (2008) and Veciana et al. (2005). Carsrud and Brännback (2011) researched entrepreneurial motivation. Cheli and Allman (2003) explored the intentions of technology oriented entrepreneurs, while Krueger et al. (2000) analyzed different entrepreneurial intentions. Moreover, the tested entrepreneurship attitudes were tested on students at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Luthje & Franke, 2003), while the role of perceived skill was identified as an important factor impacting entrepreneurial intention (Linan, 2008). Furthermore, selfesteem and personal control differences were found as an influential entrepreneurial factor (Mohd Shariff, 2009), while images of self-vulnerability and self-capability both impact the images of opportunity (Mitchell & Shepherd, 2010).

Wang & Wong (2004), on the other hand, explored students' attitudes with respect to educational needs that spur entrepreneurial behavior. The educational setting is seen as a significant factor spurring entrepreneurship in the Turker & Selcuk's (2008), Wu & Wu's (2008) and Lee & Wong's (2004) study. There is an educational significance for assisting the realization of potential behavior (Wu & Wu, 2008) which can be realized through emanation from appropriate curriculum structure (Wang & Wong, 2004) with a special reference to fostering creativity related to reactivity (Zampetakis, 2008). …

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