Academic journal article Asian Social Science

The Roles of Tourism System towards Development of Tourist Friendly Destination Concept

Academic journal article Asian Social Science

The Roles of Tourism System towards Development of Tourist Friendly Destination Concept

Article excerpt

Abstract

Tourism destination has seen as a consolidation of products and experience which influencing tourists to travel. Even though there are many studies in various aspects of tourism destination, the shift of "mass tourism" to "alternative tourism", the changes of tourist tastes as well as an increasing of travel capabilities, have called for a tourism destination to be more creative in offering niche tourism or more importantly, "Tourist Friendly Destination". Since there are no specific theories, concepts, frameworks and indicators in tourist friendly destination usage, thus leaving a gap of knowledge and misunderstanding about the formation of tourist friendly destination. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop a tourist friendly destination concept by using a tourism system approached. The main objective of this study is to identify the roles of tourism system, which influence of the element of activity, product and space towards the development of tourist friendly destination concept. Through this study, it is an attempt to provide a relevant tourist friendly destination concept and to be as a benchmark for tourism destination, which using this concept.

Keywords: macro level, tourism destination, tourism system, tourist friendly destination

1. Introduction

Recently, the tourism industry has shown a rapid development and obvious change wherein tourism has brought in a large amount of income to the economy of a country. Changes and developments have seen since in late of 90th and early twentieth century when the previous tourism only involved the elites' classes, has turned to the concept of mass tourism and alternative tourism, which are customer-oriented. It has created a new phenomenon in the development of hotels, infrastructure as well as other facilities, which used by tourists (Rojek & Urry, 1997; Desmond, 1999; Gottdiener, 2000; Urry, 2002). Through the previous studies have shown that the developments of tourism are resulted from the changes in the "mass tourism" concept whereby the rigid travel package which later moved to the "alternative tourism" concept which has led to more interest and strong economic opportunities (Sleight, 1993; Weinstein, 1994; Buhalis, 2000). The development and changes are due to the changes in the global economy (resulting from globalization and rising oil prices) as well as the invention of new technology. In fact, this condition is also influenced by the changes of tourist behavior, attitude and style which is considered as a customer in a tourism destination, have been changed due to the influence of elements activity, product and space offered at the tourism destination, which are considered as archaic as well as creating a feeling bored and would give a negative perception of a tourism destination. According to Jawardena (2002), a tourism destination would need to manage the changes in accordance with the changes in taste, needs, desires and wants of the tourists. Therefore, a tourism destination needed to be more creative and unique in offering niche tourism or more importantly a customer-oriented branding. Although there are many studies focusing on tourism destination such as destination image (Milman & Pizam, 1995), location of destination (Gartner, 1989; Chako, 1997; Walmsley & Young, 1998; Botha et al., 1999), personality of destination (Yuksel Ekinci & Sameer Hosany, 2006), destination branding (Morgan, Pritchard & Pride, 2003), destination competitiveness (Ritchie & Crouch, 2003), analysis on choice of destinations (Hsu et al., 2009), attributes and destination products (Crompton & Love, 1995; Spreng et al., 1996; Cho, 1998; Baker & Crompton, 2000), factors that effect of choice destinations (Walmsley & Jenkins, 1993; Baloglu, 1997) and evaluation on destinations (Pizam & Milman, 1993; Weber, 1997; Weaver et al., 2007), however research on a tourist friendly destination concept is quite limited and leaving a gap of knowledge. …

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