Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Effect of Boxing Exercises on Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Egyptian Elite Boxers

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Effect of Boxing Exercises on Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Egyptian Elite Boxers

Article excerpt

Introduction

Boxing is a combat sport where two participants of the same weight battle each other with their fists in a series of three-minute rounds (AIBA, 2010). Modification in boxing technical & competition rules especially in the duration and number of rounds might have incorporated ascending physiological changes in boxers. Despite the shortness of boxing match length (3 rounds x 3 min), it is distinguished that boxers should be equipped for huge efforts on the ring (El-Ashker, 2011). Most specialists in the combat sports fields emphasized on the importance of studying physiological changes associated with combating effort (Beneke et al., 2004; Toskovic et al., 2002; Kravitz et al., 2003; Ghosh, 2010; Chatterjee et al., 2006). The level of performance advances whenever such positive physiological changes occurred to achieve training adaptations lead to execute boxing bouts efficiency, without decreasing energy production (El-Ashker, 2004).

Energy from aerobic and anaerobic metabolism relies on the intensity and length of the activity (Kraemer et al., 2011). Boxing is characterized by High intensity movements during rounds with short breaks are not enough for full recovery. Consequently, this results in the production of lactic acid, and elevated blood lactate (Khanna and Manna, 2006). Boxing rounds put a heavy load on boxers who have ascending heart rate and blood lactate concentration through bouts (Ghosh et al., 1995). Simultaneously, physiologists and athletes should be more conscious of the biochemical changes that might caused by prolonged exercise (Warburton et al., 2002). As a result, the best method to assess training adaptations and to prevent overtraining is examining the selected biochemical markers (Urhausen and Kindermann, 2002; Gleeson, 2002; Umeda et al., 2008). Therefore, the trainer should be familiar with the physiological aspects related to training.

A small number of studies have been informed in the literature concerning the physiological demands of boxing (Khanna and Manna, 2006). The physiological requirements of boxing have been investigated on account of heart rate, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2Max), blood lactate (BL) (Kravitz et al., 2003; Ghosh, 2010; Ghosh et al., 1991). Earlier studies on Egyptian boxers focus on motor ability, aerobic and anaerobic capacities of Egyptian Boxers (El-Ashker, 2004; Hafez, 1997; El-Hawy, 1983). Rare studies investigated the biochemical responses of Egyptian boxers (Shehata, 2010) have been conducted. To the authors' information, this is the first study to analyse both physiological and biochemical responses in Egyptian boxers. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to investigate physiological and biochemical responses of Egyptian elite boxers subsequent to boxing exercises.

Materials and methods

Participants

The study was approved by the Ethics and Research Committee of the Faculty of Sports and Physical Education, Mansoura University, Egypt, and the guidelines of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) for the use of human subjects were accepted in the study. A total of 17 Egyptian elite male boxers (age range 18 ~ 23 yr) volunteered to participate. Subject characteristics (Mean ± SD) are located in Table 1. All of them were registered in the Egyptian boxing federation, with a minimum of 4 years of national boxing participation. The objective of the study was explained to the participants. Selected boxers are volunteered, and could withdraw if they wished.

Before acceptation as a subject, all participants were supplied with a consent form and a physical activity willingness questionnaire. The willingness questionnaire asked about any medical troubles or situations that may exclude participants from the study. Participants were given the type of food they are accustomed to, as well as the training programme has been conducted in the same conditions they are familiar with.

Procedures

To evaluate the physiological and biochemical variables, Participants attended the laboratory in a comfortable situation with at least one full rest day since their last training session. …

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