Academic journal article Iranian Journal of Public Health

Waist Circumference, Weight, and Body Mass Index of Iranians Based on National Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors Surveillance

Academic journal article Iranian Journal of Public Health

Waist Circumference, Weight, and Body Mass Index of Iranians Based on National Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors Surveillance

Article excerpt

Abstract

Background: Obesity is an important and life-threatening disease, associated with different chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. We sought to address the paucity of information on the trends of anthropometric indices such as weight, waist circumference, and body mass index in the adult population of Iran.

Methods: We drew upon data from the First Non-communicable Disease Survey in Iran in 2005. In total, 79,611 participants between 20 and 64 years old were selected via the random multistage cluster sampling. The Lambda Median Scale method was applied to construct normal curves for anthropometric indices.

Results: The mean of waist circumference in both genders increased with age and in all the age groups except those between 20 and 24 years old was higher in the women. The mean of body mass index was higher in all the age brackets in the women, but the means of weight and height were higher in the men. The association of theses indices with diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia was stronger in men.

Conclusion: The ranges of waist circumference and body mass index in Iranian population are different from those of other countries. The higher body mass index and waist circumference in females and the direct association between obesity and chronic diseases, is advisable that the effects of this phenomenon be fully investigated and due heed be paid to the importance of lifestyle modification.

Keywords: Waist circumference, Body mass index, Weight, Iran

Introduction

Obesity has become one of the most life-threatening diseases (1), associated with some chronic conditions (2, 3). The prevalence of obesity in some countries such as Pacific regions have the highest rates, and in some others like China and Thailand have lower rates but with a rapid rise in recent years (4). The prevalence of obesity and its complications is high in the Middle East (5).

In epidemiological studies, the normal ranges of anthropometric indices such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference are mainly obtained from Caucasians and in particular Europeans; they are, therefore, not necessarily representative of the indices in other ethnics . Furthermore, the association of these indices with diabetes and dyslipidemia is varied in different populations (6).

There are some articles on the prevalence of obesity and overweight in different parts of Iran. (7, 8). Moreover various anthropometric cut-offs, based on both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were reported (9).

However, there is still a dearth of information on the trends and reference values of weight, waist circumference, and BMI specifically among adults in Iran and some other Middle-Eastern countries. Hence, we utilized the data of the Non- Communicable Disease (NCD) Survey, which was carried out in 2005, to evaluate the trends of weight, waist circumference, and BMI.

Materials and Methods

The first nationwide Surveillance of Risk Factors of NCD was a cross-sectional study conducted in 2005, which was followed by another survey in 2007. Its protocol in detail can be found elsewhere (10).

In accordance with the stepwise approach recommended by WHO (11), samples were selected via the random multistage cluster sampling method. Each cluster contained 20 habitants, half of them male. Finally, 89,440 individuals aged between 15 and 64 from and proportional to the size of urban and rural non-institutionalized populations of 28 provinces of Iran were selected. The focus of our study being upon the analysis of the information of participants between 20 and 64 years of age so, the sample size was decreased to 79,611 individuals.

The questionnaires were mainly based on the WHO's stepwise approach to NCD risk factors surveillance and filled in through face-to-face interviews. The information was recorded by interviewing i.e., asking questions about demographic status as well as collecting data through physical and laboratory measurements such as weight, waist circumference, height, blood pressure, Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS), and cholesterol. …

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