Global investment in ICT to improve teaching and learning in schools have been initiated by many governments. Despite all these investments on ICT infrastructure, equipments and professional development to improve education in many countries, ICT adoption and integration in teaching and learning have been limited. This article reviews personal, institutional and technological factors that encourage teachers' use of computer technology in teaching and learning processes. Also teacher-level, school-level and system-level factors that prevent teachers from ICT use are reviewed. These barriers include lack of teacher ICT skills; lack of teacher confidence; lack of pedagogical teacher training; I lack of suitable educational software; limited access to ICT; rigid structure of traditional education systems; restrictive curricula, etc. The article concluded that knowing the extent to which these barriers affect individuals and institutions may help in taking a decision on how to tackle them.
Keywords:, ICT adoption;, ICT integration; information and communication technologies; personal; institutional and technological factors
The rapid growth in Information Communication and Technologies (ICT) have brought remarkable changes in the twenty-first century, as well as affected the demands of modern societies. ICT is becoming increasingly important in our daily lives and in our educational system. Therefore, there is a growing demand on educational institutions to use ICT to teach the skills and knowledge students need for the 21st century. Realizing the effect of ICT on the workplace and everyday life, today's educational institutions try to restructure their educational curricula and classroom facilities, in order to bridge the existing technology gap in teaching and learning. This restructuring process requires effective adoption of technologies into existing environment in order to provide learners with knowledge of specific subject areas, to promote meaningful learning and to enhance professional productivity (Tornei, 2005).
Global investment in ICT to improve teaching and learning in schools have been initiated by many governments. For example in United Kingdom, the government spending on educational ICT in 2008-09 in the UK was £2.5bn (Nut, 2010), in United States, the expenditure on K-12 schools and higher education institutions was $6 billion and $4.7 billion respectively in 2009 (Nut, 2010) and in New Zealand, the government spends over $ 410 million every year on schools ICT infrastructure (Johnson, Calvert & Raggert 2009). Despite all these investments on ICT infrastructure, equipments and professional development to improve education in many countries, Gulbahar (2007) claimed that huge educational investment have produced little evidence of ICT adoption and use in teaching and learning especially in Turkey. Evidence suggests that education sector is investing heavily on ICT but ICT adoption in education sector lagged behind the business sector (Leidner & Jarvenpaa, 1995). Several surveys are carried out to investigate the factors that are related to the use of computer technology in teaching and learning processes by teachers (Baek, Jung & Kim, 2008; Norton, McRobbie, & Cooper, 2000).
FACTORS INFLUENCING TEACHERS' ADOPTION AND INTEGRATION OF ICT
Before the review of factors influencing the adoption and integration of the use of ICT by teachers, the concepts of adoption and integration are described. Rangaswamy & Gupta, (2000) describes adoption as the decisions that individuals make each time that they consider taking up an innovation. Similarly, Rogers (2003) defines adoption as the decision of an individual to make use of an innovation as the best course of action available. Rogers (2003) argues that the process of adoption starts with initial hearing about an innovation to final adoption. For the purpose of this study, Rogers' definition of adoption is used. …