Academic journal article Pakistan Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology

Work-Family Conflict and Organizational Commitment: Study of Faculty Members in Pakistani Universities

Academic journal article Pakistan Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology

Work-Family Conflict and Organizational Commitment: Study of Faculty Members in Pakistani Universities

Article excerpt

This study examined the impact of work-family conflict on commitment to organization in public and private universities of Pakistan. The study also specifically determined work-family conflict and the degree of differences between men and women, single and married individuals, and faculty members of public and private universities. Seventy-two faculty members completed Work-Family Conflict Scale (Carlson, Kacmar, & Williams, 2000) and Organizational Commitment Scale (Allen & Meyer, 2000). Regression analysis suggested negative impact of work-family conflict on organizational commitment As hypothesized, three-way ANOVA revealed that married faculty members had high degree of work-family conflict compared to single status faculty members, however no significant differences of work-family conflict were found between men and women or public and private university faculty members and the interactions were also insignificant. This study proposes that for married faculty members family load can lead to reduction in organizational commitment.

Keywords: work-family conflict, organizational commitment, gender, higher education faculty

Conflict occurs in all walks of life. Stress, caused by bearing load of many responsibilities can result in poorness of performance in any one (or more) of them, because the individual pays greater attention to those that interest him or her. This conflict of interest is commonly observed in full-time employees of any organization that maintain a family; nuclear or extended. Thus, Work-Family Conflict (WFC) causes an imbalance between work and family life, such that work affects family life or family life interferes with affecting outcomes such as organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover (Akintayo, 2010). Greenhaus and Beutell (1985) define WFC as "a form of inter-role conflict in which the role pressures from the work and family domains are mutually incompatible in some respect". Porter, Steers, Mowday, and Boulian (1974) define organizational commitment as "strong belief in and acceptance of the organizational goals and values, willingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of the organization, and a definite desire to maintain organizational membership". Organizational commitment is of three types, i.e., affective commitment, normative commitment, and continuous commitment (Allen & Meyer, 1990, 1996; Boehman, 2006; Canipe, 2006; Greenberg, 2005; Karrasch, 2003; Turner & Chelladurai, 2005). Affective commitment refers to the emotional bond and identification of the employees with the organization. Continuance commitment refers to the material benefits gained from being with the organization (Akintayo, 2010). While, normative commitment reveals a feeling of compulsion to continue employment (Jaros, Jermier, Koehler, & Sincich, 1993). The current study investigates a unidirectional family-work conflict, i.e., family interfering with organizational commitment, which includes all of the three forms of commitments among universities faculty members located in Rawalpindi and Islamabad (Pakistan). Furthermore, the study also determines the degree of difference between men and women, married and single, and faculty serving public and private universities.

More than 75 years ago, many employees in the US were only conscious of maintaining their working hours largely oblivious of family demands, however since World War II because of labor unions employees became more conscious of working (fewer) hours and better pays and benefits so that they can balance their work and family life (Akintayo, 2010). Studies show that working overtime incurs cost to family life (Cole, 2004) and if the work is demanding it results in negative family outcomes and vice versa (Adebola, 2005).

Traditionally, researchers (Duxbury, Higgins & Mills, 1992; Frone, Russell, & Cooper 1997; Gutek, Searle, & Klepa, 1991) measured WFC unidirectionally but now investigations try to look at how families can interfere with work. …

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